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Essays

Essays

Vicki Lezama

Published author, experienced custom essay writer and a psychology graduate.

I'm Vicki. I was born and raised in Bend, Oregon. Writing is my passion. I help you by using the sheer power of words. I would love to share my creative energy to produce amazing essays for you.

Application of Artificial Intelligence in Cyber Security



In this article, we take a look at the growing use of artificial intelligence in cyber security as security professionals try to stay a step ahead of the constant barrage of threats and cyber-attacks.Background – Artificial Intelligence in Cyber Security:Evolving technologies and the growing numbers of “always on”,...

How Different Sectors are Using Artificial intelligence (AI)



Artificial intelligence is no longer a discipline relegated to research laboratories. Applications are widespread and there are several examples where different AI technologies are implemented. But before illustrating some areas, we want to remember the two elements that are, on the one hand, making it possible to spread AI applications in busin...

What is artificial intelligence and why it matters?



The advances in artificial intelligence obtained in recent years are unprecedented: ever more powerful computers and the possibility of having huge amounts of data, thanks to the Internet, have made it possible to create very elaborate software, which in the coming years could significantly change our relationship with computers, machines and th...

Everything you need to know about WiMAX



Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, also known as WiMax, is a standard for wireless communications that will allow, in addition to lowering Internet connection costs, to broaden broadband wireless technology throughout the country. Above all, those areas that are not still reached by high-speed connection today, such as the countrie...

Data Visualization: What it is and why it matters?



For Data Visualization it means a combination of techniques to visualize the data and explore them interactively. Data Visualization is an increasingly central activity in the field of Analytics. We often talk about Data Design, that is, a structured approach to creating visual and interactive reports that allow those wh...

Everything you need to know about Data Science



We commonly talk about Data Science, because today data is a competitive advantage for companies, but what exactly does it mean? We will try to deepen this theme in this essential guide. What is Data Science?Data Science is the study that concerns the retrieval and analysis of data sets, intending to identify inf...

Augmented reality: what it is, how it works, examples



Augmented reality a.k.a AU gives the interactive experience to the users of the real-world environment where the real world’ objects reside and enhanced by the perceptual information which is generated by computers. It is also the integration and strengthening of the possibilities that are offered to us by our five senses with high-tech devic...

What is Wi-Fi and how does it works



WiFi comes from 'Wireless Fidelity’ that is a wireless data transmission technology used for the Internet - mainly - and based on the 802.11 standards. But what is it in reality, and how does it work? In most cases, it is used in the home environment, for the connection of devices in a local network, but it is not...

Data Science: Fundamental tools for data analysis



Data Science is a recent science, which is conquering the digital world. Many companies use Data Scientist which produces reports on market trends on customer needs, to improve their products. Data Scientists manage large amounts of data, more or less structured and make use of tools and programming languages ​​for Data Science. In this arti...

Virtual reality, what it is and how it works



The virtual reality is a simulated reality, a three-dimensional environment constructed on the computer that can be explored and with which you can interact using computing devices - vision goggles, gloves, and earplugs - that project wearer in a scenario so realistic it seems real. Virtual reality VS augmented reality&...

The basic Structure and functionality of robots



Robotics is a very complex system that is based on their generation (first, second, and third-generation), or on the difference between autonomous and non-autonomous robots, it is not enough. It is necessary to understand the structure of the robots and what their primary functions are to understand what typology and models of...

Humanoid robot: what it is, how it works and price



These are the questions we ask ourselves more often because humanoids are and will be increasingly present in our lives. With this article, we try to give simple answers to complex questions and to take stock of the humanoids already on sale and those that will be short. Let’s get into it!What is a humanoid robot?A...

Robotic Integration into Our Lives: Now and the Future



By customization the use of machines in daily life, robots always come first. It may be that their comprehensive integration into everyday life means that everyone can depend on them as support for their physical tasks, just as we now rely on applications for computer tasks. As the robots move from our imagination to our homes, offices, and...

All you need to know about Cryptography



Cryptography is a fundamental tool in the fight against cybercrime. What is encryption, and what does it mean? The etymology helps to understand: Kryptós (hidden) and graphía (writing) are the two Greek words that make up the term cryptography. The latter is nothing but a system designed to make a message unreadable for those who d...

Everything you need to know about Virtual memory



Virtual memory consists of virtualizing the address space. It is an operating system mechanism that requires hardware support. Here we will discuss what the virtual memory is and how it works. Let’s delve into it!What is Virtual Memory?Virtual memory is a mechanism of the operating system that allows running&nb...

Memory Management in an Operating System



RAM is a fairly valuable resource, which must be managed according to certain principles. There are different management concepts, which lead to different techniques, with their pros and cons.The management of main memory (RAM, primary, or as we call it) is one of the most important aspects of the operating systems. Like all comput...

Digital Imaging: What Is It?



The term "imaging" was "invented" a few years ago in the United States, to better define the evolution of image production and reproduction processes. Its meaning is quite deep, and understanding it in depth will allow you to go deeper into the section that concerns this space, dedicated to digital imaging.Today many people talk ab...

Artificial intelligence and medicine: an increasingly close relationship



Artificial intelligence and medicine: applications can be varied, particularly in the field of diagnostics. A market destined to grow further over the next few years. Artificial intelligence and medicine are the two worlds that have decidedly distant origins but which have already started a close relationship of collaboration, with the fund...

Bionic Limbs and Technology: Advancements Improving Patients' Lives



Artificial intelligence for healthcare continues to improve, leading to the expansion of bionics technology. Such health technology, like bionic limbs or eyes, provides new opportunities for patient care so they can lead fuller lives. This article explores the medical bionics tools of today and tomorrow.What if a prosthetic hand could fee...

Healthcare Advanced Computer Power: Robotics, Medical Imaging, and More



Advanced computer power has been transforming healthcare on what seems like an almost daily basis. In this article, we explore some of the latest advancements related to areas such as robotics, medical imaging, and more, as well as other exciting possibilities for the future.  Increasingly sophisticated computers a...

Healthcare AI: Game Changers for Medical Decision-Making and Remote Patient Monitoring



Advancements in healthcare AI have resulted in the creation of several game-changers for remote patient monitoring and medical decision-making, including digital technology that provides valuable patient data in the absence of clinical visits and puts a wealth of knowledge at physicians’ fingertips.What may have sounded like scie...

All you need to know about Toxicology



Toxicology studies the unwanted effects of chemical or physical agents, including drugs and pollutants on living organisms. There are many branches of toxicology, including those that focus on the toxicity of a specific organ system. It is also associated with food safety, metal toxicity, reproductive and developmental toxicology, regulatory tox...

What is Virtualization? Benefits & Applications



Virtualization is a technology that provides the possibility of creating several simulated (or virtual) processing environments within a single physical hardware system. The hardware components (real, physical) are abstracted to make them available to the software in the form of a virtual resource. The set of virtual hardware components (Hard di...

Nuclear fusion: What it is and how it works?



The nuclear reactions that produce energy are of two types: fission, in which a heavy atomic nucleus separates into two lighter nuclei, and fusion, which releases energy following the combination of two light nuclei in a heavier nucleus. Nuclear fusion is a phenomenon that takes on great importance in nature because it is the basis of the functi...

The election system of the President in the United States of America



The institutional structure of the United States is based on three fundamental points. For example a rigid division between the powers of the State, the strong political weight assigned to the President who in the intentions of the "Founding Fathers" of the new nation had to assume the same role he had then the Sovereign in the United Kingdom an...

Two-party System in United States of America



Democratic Party (Democratic Party) and the Republican Party (Republican Party, popularly known as the GOP, which stands for Grand Old Party) in the United States of America are 2 major political parties. - Although the Constitution of the United States (1788) is silent on the subject (moreover, the first presi...

How to Cope with Chronic Pain



Do you know someone that suffers from chronic pain? Chronic pain is classified as pain that has lasted for 6 months or longer. Living with chronic pain can be a struggle, but remember that you are still human. Don’t let others make you feel non-existent or unworthy because you are no longer normal or told that you don’t look sick. Even if yo...

All you need to know about Holistic Medicine



Holistic medication is healthcare that comprises all of the facets of one’s personality to get the optimum condition of wellness. It includes the entire process of considering the wholeness of the individual, including dietary, physical, and environment, spiritual, lifestyle, and social values. Holistic medicine includes almost all remedies an...

Risk management, meaning, and importance for companies



The history of economic systems and financial markets in recent years has been characterized by many cases of crisis and, in the most pathological situations, of failures that have certainly left their mark. However, there is a very recurrent element that characterizes these negative situations. It is the misalignment between performance profile...

InMoov: how to build an open source humanoid robot



InMoov is an open-source humanoid robot whose pieces can be printed with a 3D printer. It was born from a project by Gael Langevin - French sculptor with a passion for robots - and is composed of about 500 pieces. Around InMoov, a community of experts and enthusiasts from all over the world was born, exchanging tips for assembling and programmin...

What is rapid prototyping for 3D printing?



Prototyping is an essential phase of the product development process.The rapid prototyping technology par excellence is the additive manufacturing that works by adding material, with the possibility of creating even very complex and detailed forms. Choosing 3D printing to make your own prototypes means you ar...

Tinnitus Guide: Common Symptoms and Treatment Options



Tinnitus is the hissing, crackling, buzzing, or ringing sound that you hear inside of your ear or both. People who suffer from this ailment may experience a lot of different noises. The noises may differ from minor disturbance to significant pain. An individual who suffers from it often complains that it causes a lot of discomfort, especially in...

How mobile robot can do in logistics or in production



The mobile robots or autonomous intelligent vehicles (AIV) are carving out a leading role in the logistics and production areas of many companies operating in different sectors and will be increasingly present. The reason is quickly explained: if used correctly, these means can lead to a net increase in efficiency in the ware...

Dynamic Systems Modeling with Machine Learning



A time series is a finite or infinite sequence of elements that keep a specific chronological order with each other. These elements can be the product of a measurement process like the one mentioned above, or they can be generated in a completely synthetic way. In addition, depending on the characteristics of the measured variable, these element...

Bipolar disorder: Symptoms, causes, diagnosis and treatment



People with bipolar disorder continually see their lives switch between euphoria and depression. Bipolarity is the name we give today to manic depression. This mood disorder, which is diagnosed late, affects 1% of the population. Bipolar disorder, formerly called "manic depression" or wrongly bipolar, is a disease that affects moo...

Importance of KYC verification to making the Blockchain secure



KYC verification creates transparency and a sense of trust among a community of users. Everyone on the platform is aware that the other user was made part of this platform after vetting. Credentials used for user registration were checked with the help of identity verification services. Various platforms utilize different KYC services or even pr...

All you need to know about Anxiety disorder



While it is normal to experience occasional anxiety, it becomes acute when it is irrational and excessive. it causes great distress and affects the quality of life. We then speak of anxiety disorders, which can take the form of generalized anxiety, and/or a more acute form with panic attacks. Management includes therapy and medication when neces...

All you need to know about Drones



In the last few years, the market for drones has grown leaps and bounds. At one time, the use of these devices was restricted only to the military and government organizations such as disaster management. These days, however, these devices are used in a more widespread manner and even by civilians. The technology has also evolved a lot, and bett...

Social robots



Social robots are domestic robots, more commonly identified today as personal robots, whose primary objective is to keep People Company by performing various tasks, from the entertainment of children and animals to the management of the smart home and surveillance.Social robots are one of the areas of domestic robotics that will...

Biochemistry of neurotransmitter



Without neurotransmitters, there would be neither memory nor emotions. There are dozens of these brain chemical messengers, but six of them lead the way and can be modulated by food. Find out why we are what we eat!To find out how molecules can act on alertness, memory, feelings of well-being, or stress, a quick visit to the brain is esse...

Identity theft: what to do?



The Right to Protection of personal data is the fundamental rule (not surprisingly formulated at the beginning of the Code regarding personal data which gives each individual the right to claim that the use of your personal data is carried out in compliance with your fundamental rights as well as your dignity.What are the differences between...

The digital image processing management



The application possibilities of digital radiology include the management functions (archiving, transmission, recovery, etc.) and the processing ones, aimed at the “piloted " reconstruction of the image to make it more responsive to production needs. The set of techniques used to achieve this latter goal is known as “image processing....

What are Enzymes and how do they work



Enzymes are biological catalysts of a protein nature, without which life could not exist. Only a small group of enzymes are made up of RNA molecules, called ribozymes, which come into play in some processes such as protein synthesis and splicing of messenger RNA in eukaryotic cells.Enzymes preside over the many metabolic reactions of a li...

What is a quantum computer?



The definition of the quantum computer is quite simple. It is a computer that exploits the laws of physics and quantum mechanics for data processing using the qubit as a fundamental unit. Unlike electronic calculation, at the base of computers as we have always known them, whose fundamental unit is the bit!In particular, quantum...

Ways B2B Startups Streamline Their Conversion Strategies



The prime objective of any content marketing campaign is to generate conversions. Of course, B2B companies are no exception, except that their conversion goals may vary depending on the nature of their campaign.B2B companies that spend a sizeable portion of their marketing budget on content marketing always seek out better ways to optimiz...

Schizophrenia - a rare psychiatric illness | Essay



When we talk about schizophrenia, we refer to a particular disorder, characterized by the presence of specific symptoms such as psychosis, alteration of behavior and thinking, up to a strong mismatch of the person, who is unable to lead (in the most serious cases) a life normal.- What it looks like- People at risk-...

Brain-Computer Interface systems with EEG signals



The control signals used in the BCI systems based on electroencephalographic signals, with particular regard to the phenomena of synchronization and DE synchronization of the brain rhythms related to a mental state.Introduction on Brain-Computer Interface systemsFor more than ten years the research has been aimed at the implementation of...

Why do biomedical signals need processing?



Bioengineering is important for medicine because it provides tools and methodologies that can support the doctor in diagnosing, monitoring particular parameters, and understanding certain problems, through the use of mathematical models. In general, it is that sector that integrates the knowledge and methods of engineering with the problems of m...

Neural networks: what they are and what they are for



Artificial neural networks are mathematical models composed of artificial neurons inspired by biological neural networks (human or animal). They are used to solve Artificial Intelligence engineering problems related to different technological areas such as computer science, electronics, simulation, or other disciplines.We could say...

All you need to know about Byzantine emperors



Byzantine Empire is commonly considered to be an absolute monarch when Diocletian divided the Roman Empire for administrative reasons into the two halves of the Western Empire and the Eastern Empire. They were and what did the Byzantine emperors who succeeded each other during the history of the Byzantine Empire or Eastern Roman Empire. Tod...

How to Track Your Content Marketing ROI



The efficacy of your content marketing campaigns depends greatly on your ability to spell out your marketing goals. In terms of marketing dynamics, content marketing is unlike other forms of marketing strategies in that it calls for businesses to make clear-cut goals before setting up a content marketing campaign.Essentially, a dil...

Characteristics of the byzantine architecture



The term Byzantine architecture derives from its being the result of civilization belonging to the ancient city of Byzantium, later re-founded by Constantine in 330 AD and called Constantinople. With the transfer of the capital from Rome to Byzantium and, then, with the subdivision of the Roman empire into the Empire of the East and Empire of th...

5 techniques to create an animation



The animation techniques used by the film and advertising industry are manifold, but the most important are these five techniques.Here is the list of the 5 animation techniques that we propose in this article.Traditional animation (Cel animation)Historical notesIt has a very complex history, with indefinite nuances and linke...

How to Gun control In the USA?



The massacre at the Route 91 Harvest Festival in Las Vegas - with 59 people killed and 527 injured in what has been called the worst mass shooting in recent American history - has rekindled the debate on access to firearms in the United States. President Donald Trump has kept silent on the issue, while the titles of the major arms manufacturers...

13 Best colleges for political science in the world



A bachelor's degree is a qualification issued by universities and colleges. To obtain a degree, you must complete the necessary courses, which can last from three to seven years, depending on the institution you are enrolled in. Political scientists treat systems of government and analyze political activity and behavior. Graduates in Politi...

An ultimate guide about Biomaterials



Biomaterials are generally defined as substances (other than drugs), or combinations of substances, of natural or synthetic origin, which can be used for any period of time, either alone or as part of a system, in order to treat, empower, replace any tissue, organ or body function.Biocompatible materialsBiomaterials science is concerned w...

The blood flow in cardiovascular system - Biofluid Mechanics



The human body is made up of billions of cells, which are the elementary units like the bricks of a building, endowed with their own life but united in many aggregations (the tissues), which are gradually more complex to form the whole of the human organism.To live, and the cells continually need oxygen (O2) and nutrients. At the same tim...

Postpartum depression: what is it?



The post-partum depression occurs in the weeks after childbirth and is characterized by depressed mood, worthlessness, and physiological alterations.Postpartum depression The period of pregnancy and postpartum is a moment of great vulnerability for the woman. Since conception, in fact, a series of changes have occurred, not only external...

What is antisocial disorder?



In the field of psychiatry and psychotherapy, sociopathy is defined with the term “antisocial personality disorder "to indicate a disorder that prevents the individual from adapting to the ethical and behavioral standards of his or her socio-cultural community. A sociopath can become a threat, show criminal attitudes, organize dangerous sects,...

Electromagnetic exposure effects on human organs



In recent years, there has been growing public concern about the influence of electromagnetic waves on the human body. At the moment, humans are exposed to various sources of electromagnetic fields in many situations that occur in everyday life. The use of EM waves in various applications has increased rapidly and includes the use of mobile phon...

How breast cancers are classified?



Breast cancer is not a single disease but many different diseases. The evolution of breast cancer is divided into five stages. The stage indicates how far the tumor has spread from the original site. It is the most frequent type of cancer that is found in the female. Differences affect survival rates.Breast cancer can be cataloged in diff...

Self-assembly for biological systems



In biological systems, there are many examples of self-assembly, just think of spontaneous reversible DNA double helix starting from two strands complementary to deoxyribonucleic acid. Other examples are found in the formation of cell membranes, multi-component enzymes, and viruses. In this way, nature exploits a limited number of often simple i...

The Structure and Function of Macromolecules



The term macromolecules refer to molecules with a high molecular mass (greater than 1000 Uma). The dimensions of the macromolecules are extremely varied and depend on the number and nature of the component atoms; you can get to the size of the order of 100 Å (Angstrom), that is, the size of the colloidal particles. Macromolecules can be of both...

The structure of cell: a research on the bricks of the human body!



We are made up of 100,000 billion cells. Understanding the basic composition and functioning of the cell can help us understand what happens at more complex levels of organs. The first phase is called chemical evolution, from very simple molecules such as hydrogen, ammonia, methane, monoxide, and carbon dioxide, by the action of ultraviolet radi...

What is the cytoplasm and its function?



The cytoplasm is composed of a viscous and very fluid part, the cytosol, made up of water (which represents 75-85% of the total weight of the cell), of inorganic substances dissociated in ionic form (especially ions K +, Na +, Ca ++ and Mg ++) and from various organic molecules (including proteins with enzymatic or structural function).Nu...

What is biopolymers?



A polymer is a large molecule that appears as a long chain to which different branches can be linked. The structure is made up of many basic units such as in the macro world could be a pearl necklace. The basic units are single molecules, called monomers, and they can be aggregated in groups of two, three, four, or more (and then they are called...

Characterization of biological tissues, biomaterials



In the broad and multidisciplinary panorama of bioengineering, the study of biological tissues and biomaterials occupies a broad spectrum role both in their clinical and methodological relevance. In particular, the tissues are characterized by a multi-physical and mechano-biological behavior in which the mechanics are certainly a relevant part,...

How the cells of our body communicate?



The cells of each organism are constantly engaged in communicating with each other to maintain the necessary balance. For the first time, a general map of the types of communication between cells that affect the 144 most important cell types of the human body has been created. The cell is the fundamental unit for life; a single-celled organism (...

Tissue and organ construction: Adhesion and recognition between cells



The establishment of multicellular organisms requires the movement of cells and their aggregation into masses, which, during the embryonic development phases, will constitute tissues and organs. These morphogenetic processes imply the ability of cells to recognize each other and to establish stable interactions both with other cells and with the...

How the Lymphatic System Works?



The tissues are distinguished in diffuse and lymph nodes. The diffuse tissue is represented by accumulations of lymphocytes, supported by a reticular stroma, scattered in various organs (omentum, mucosa of the alimentary canal, respiratory system, and urethra). In general, we speak of tissue associated with mucous membranes. It consists of lymph...

Analysis methods of Transport through biological membranes



The transport of substances through membranes is a fundamental phenomenon for a living. All living beings are separated from the environment by special barriers made up of membranes, which make possible a selective exchange of material with the external environment and ensure that the internal composition remains constant over time. Furthermore,...

An ultimate guide about biochemical reactions



The chemical reaction to be carried out, the presence of one or more substances is necessary, so that it decomposes or combines and thus forms the new substance — for example, respiration, metabolism, the formation of oxides, hydroxides, acids, etc.MetabolismMetabolism is understood as the various chemical change processes of matter car...

Systems biology - An understanding the functioning of biological systems



Systems biology is an interdisciplinary approach aimed at understanding the functioning of biological systems by integrating information of different nature and studying the network of dynamic connections existing between genes, proteins, metabolites and other molecules. it also aims to develop an explanatory model of systems of living organisms...

Everything you need to know about enzymatic kinetics



The chemical reactions that take place in the cells are catalyzed by enzymes. These important catalysts are specific to a particular reaction. Overall, they are extremely versatile in the sense that some thousands of enzymes now known carry out all those different reactions indispensable for the cell, such as hydrolysis, polymerization, oxidatio...

The kinetics of the transformation processes



The kinetics of the reactions study, the speed of development of a transformation reaction, which, starting from certain reagents, gives rise to certain products. In fact, all reactions take place at a certain characteristic speed k = 1 / Δtr, where Δt r is a characteristic time of the reaction considere...

The Modeling of Biological Systems



Mathematical models in biology, value and limits are linked to the impossibility of a reductionist method; the importance of a multilevel approach in the study of biological phenomena. The use of mathematical models in biology involves several conditions and limitations. A first limitation is the need to simplify mathematical models a lot. Other...

NLS (Nonlinear System) - Revolutionary system in diagnostic medicine and therapy



A team of Russian scientists has invented revolutionary system for the diagnosis of a large number of diseases and related therapy, called NLS (Non-Linear System) and has created diagnostic equipment. It allows you to track the health of the body based on changes in torsion fields, analyzing the body from body tissues down to individual cells an...

Kinetic models in biology and Related fields



It brings together three teams of mathematicians specializing in EDP and already collaborating with teams working in the fields of biology and medicine. Scientists propose a detailed study of the modeling and the mathematical and numerical analysis of problems coming from these fields. These problems have in common the need to study the qualitat...

Nonlinear Dynamics in Biology & Biomedicine



The rapid development of new quantitative methods in biology and medicine, making it possible to measure in real-time quantities previously difficult to access (such as the activity of a gene), creates new modeling needs in these fields. However, the behaviors encountered are intrinsically non-linear such as bistability,...

Mass transport in a biological system



The transformations can be represented simply as a term of production or consumption, while in the second, since the transformation takes place on the contour surfaces of the system, the corresponding reaction is introduced as a boundary condition for the system. - The reactions that take place within a single-phase, be it a gas or a liqu...

Cellular excitability



The ability of some organic structures to respond to various types of stimuli (electrical, chemical, mechanical, light, etc.) with characteristic changes in their physical state is called cellular excitability. Generally, the excitability phenomena follow the "all or nothing" law, and there is an excitability threshold below which the substrate...

How Digestive System Works



The digestive system of human is composed of salivary glands, liver, gall bladder, and pancreas which produce different substances that contribute to digestion. The alimentary canal then does not have a uniform diameter and, in some sections, folds numerous times on it to increase the surface useful for digestion and absorption.The path o...

How to complete your capstone projects effectively?



If you need to write an important document and you have little time to do it and even less motivation, this article is for you.Many students, faced with the first blank sheet of their capstone capstone thesis paper paper, and ask themselves, “ where the heck do I start? "," What the hell should I write? "It's too long a job.”...

6 Medical Technologies that revolutionized the healthcare in 2020



At a time when we need to rethink care pathways, we have new technologies available that can enter the heart of the health service, transform it and enable new sustainable models of research, diagnosis, management, and care. It is a complex transformation that requires the involvement of multiple factors like professionals, families, association...

How to write a research project



Are you looking for information on how to write a research project?Well, then you are reading the right article. In this guide, we will provide you with all the necessary advice to clarify and learn how to make such a project from A to Z. Also because it is a job that could happen you are asked to carry out during your academic career, or...

Healthcare technologies that help patients with better self-management



Almost 50 percent of Americans suffer from a chronic condition. Even more alarming is the fact that 86 percent of total medical costs are spent on this type of disease. Additionally, chronic diseases are on the rise - by 2020, 157 million Americans are expected to live with a chronic condition - and some will have multiple chronic complaints, ta...

How to choose the topic of the senior capstone project



As we all know, the formative path of the university student culminates with the writing of the senior capstone project. After months of processing, the final result of what you have written will determine your grades. However, the senior capstone project presents various difficulties, which require additional efforts. One of them is undoubtedly...

The Defense mechanisms against infections



Nobody can survive for long without immune system. This line of defense protects us not only from unwelcome hosts like viruses, bacteria, and parasites but also from our own cells, which have changed due to diseases such as cancer. Due to the seasonal wave of flu, the immune system has often been called into question and even a little unfairly d...

Role of Homeostasis in Human Physiology



Homeostasis is the state of living beings to maintain around a predetermined level the value of some internal parameters, disturbed continuously by various external and internal factors. The ordered set of subsystems that make up the human organism has a network of control systems, whose simultaneous intervention regulates the flow of energy and...

The impact of the technological innovations in medicine



Healthcare and digital innovation in healthcare is often cited as tools of effectiveness and efficiency, essential to guarantee the sustainability of the Health service. At the same time, in recent years, the sector has undergone some profound innovations, for example, the development of innovative drugs or the technological development of medic...

Image processing in medical diagnosis



In medicine, having the right perspective means recognizing diseases earlier and treating them better, or even saving lives. Modern medical technology is unthinkable today without image processing for diagnostic purposes or real-time monitoring of operations. Image processing can also be used to advantage in areas such as medicine or life scienc...

Analysis of brain signals



An important part of knowledge about brain function is based on recording neural electrical signals. The signal thus obtained is, however, unclear to interpret because it represents the contribution of several independent events. To interpret the neural signal, it is, therefore, necessary to analyze it with mathematical techniques aimed both at...

Bioconjugates for the Drugs Delivery



The result of research in the field of drug delivery has led to the development of numerous colloidal formulations capable of optimizing the delivery of easily degradable or poorly soluble drugs. Due to their limited ability to overcome biological barriers, they are unable to reach unaltered the site of action. More recently, a new class of coll...

Nanomedicines to target tumors



Nanomedicines and their revolutionary mode of administration, falling under the infinitely small, are making much talk about them. It is no longer a question for the patient to receive the active principle by swallowing, for example, a tablet. This time, the healing molecule is encapsulated in a particle, the size of which is on the order of a b...

Computed Tomography (CT) images and their reconstruction



Computed Tomography (CT) or Computerized Axial Tomography (CT) is a diagnostic imaging technique that provides tomographic images (i.e., of slices of body layers) by drawing the various organs and tissues on the basis of their density, detected due to the attenuation of an X-ray beam that passes through the patient from different points of view....

Principle and parameters of Volumetric computed tomography



Computed tomography has become the standard thoracic imaging technique after chest radiography performed on the first line. Technological developments have made it possible to shorten the duration of image acquisition to a few seconds and to image the entire thorax in patients who cannot hold a long apnea. The purpose of this article is to prese...

Theranostics: Diagnosis and Care through Nanoparticles



The term nanosciences refers to disciplines that are dedicated to studying the properties of nanomaterials, i.e., any type of structure with dimensions of the order of magnitude of nanometers, 10-9m. Order structures nm obviously exists in nature. A single strand of DNA is wide about three nanometers. The wings of a Morpho butterfly contain nano...

The practical Applications of X-rays



Radiography is probably one of the most common medical techniques (you just have to think about its use in dental care to be convinced.) If it is not a new technique, it turns out to be still of great topical and very useful. Indeed, even if many other very sophisticated medical imaging techniques have appeared in recent decades (ultrasound, sca...

The applications of Ultrasound in medicine



Ultrasound is widely used in medicine. The waves are generated by soliciting quartz with an electric field whose polarity is periodically reversed: due to the electromagnetic field that is created. The quartz compresses and expands, generating mechanical vibrations that cause the acoustic waves of ultrasound.The waves lose energy, transfe...

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) - what it is?



Magnetic resonance imaging that is called "MRI," is a diagnostic test that allows you to view the inside of our body without performing surgical operations or administering dangerous ionizing radiation. It was developed around 1980; magnetic resonance imaging has undergone a constant process of technological evolution over the years. Today, due...

Artificial Gene Synthesis



To understand this, the team of biotechnology entrepreneur Craig Venter has made a minimum genome of 473 genes. The cell that carries it is viable, but the function of a third of these genes is unknown! A cluster of artificial cells with a minimal genome, the most abundant cells are approximately one micrometer in diameter.Tom Deerinck an...

Application to synthetic biology of CAD methods



Synthetic biology is an emerging science whose objective is to create new biological functions, still nonexistent in nature, from the knowledge of living things acquired over the last century. Until recently, artificial synthetic biological systems were of reasonable complexity. This is no longer the case today, which has led to the development...

DNA extraction



To continue the molecular analyzes, the DNA must be extracted from the tissues which were gathered during the Santo 2006 project. Here is a small summary of the technique used, with the description of the action of the chemical agents used at each step. Even if the techniques differ, the steps presented here are the same as those of the extracti...

What is Gene recombination



The genetic make-up of an organism can be changed randomly and "naturally" or artificially in a targeted way. The first phenomenon occurs between individuals of the same species through crossing-over. Furthermore, in bacteria, it can take place between different cells due to the processes of transduction, conjugation, and transformation. On the...

All you need to know about metabolic pathways



Metabolism is the set of chemical transformations that take place in living organismsThe highly coordinated cellular activity allows you to: - obtain chemical energy from the environment (sunlight or degradation of nutrients) - converting nutrient molecules into monomeric molecules, characteristic of the cell itself -...

What is synthetic biology



Here is what it is, how it works, and what perspectives open synthetic biology, the new frontier of molecular biology. The news of the bacterium with an extended genetic alphabet has prompted curiosities about the profound changes that scientists can make to living species, through a new discipline called synthetic biology. But what is this new...

Transfer mechanisms of genetic information in Bacteria



The evolution of the human species is guaranteed by the meiosis of the germ cells and their subsequent union (fertilization). In this way, the new generations inherit half of the genetic heritage from the father and half from the mother.Since bacteria reproduce asexually, by simple binary cleavage, their evolution is guaranteed by two mai...

Genetic regulation networks: modeling in biology



The mathematical modeling of physical phenomena and complex biology is a real challenge for mathematicians. In the face of the mass arrival of biological data (particularly in genetics), it becomes important to provide models allowing to exploit these to help understand the phenomena that come into play.In this article, we expose the prob...

Modeling and simulation of genetic regulatory networks



At the interface of biology, computer science and mathematics, modeling, analysis, and simulation methods make it possible to describe and predict the behavior of complex genetic regulatory networks. These methods fall into four main categories depending on the mathematical concepts used, the use of graph theory concepts, the use of differential...

The regulation of cellular metabolism in the diagnosis



Already over 20 years ago, J. Schole published the scientific bases of metabolic regulation in the context of the "three-component theory." The consequences that derive from medicine are very vast because, due to them, it is possible to find a very direct approach to all diseases. Due to the vast topic here, we want to highlight some particulari...

Fascias: all about fibrous membranes



What are fascias? And what is this for? In this article, we explain the seven things to know about these fibrous membranes.What are fascias?Have you ever removed the white, stringy membrane from a piece of turkey that you were about to cook? Well, this fibrous membrane is what we call the fascia.  This translucent, skinny...

Molecular Imaging



Do you want to know about advance imaging techniques? You are on the right page. In this article, you will learn about molecular biology, which is related to the molecular basis of any biological activity between the human cells. For instance, it can be interactions, molecular synthesis, mechanism, and much more.The principleA current pos...

The Principles of MRI Contrast agents



MRI contrast agents are molecules intended to improve the quality of medical magnetic resonance imaging diagnostics. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique is based on the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance of the nuclei of hydrogen atoms - the protons - present in water molecules. These protons are provided with a magnetic moment...

Ultrasound: physical principles and image formation



Ultrasounds, like all sound waves, can be described as phenomena of compression and rarefaction of matter on a Cartesian plane. It is a sinusoidal line whose positive peaks coincide with the maximum compression and the negative ones with the maximum rarefaction. A sound wave can also be represented by concentric circles that widen starting from...

What is business cost analysis?



Cost analysis is an accounting study procedure useful for maximizing the efficiency of the administration of the resources available to a company. This type of study procedure is valid for every kind of company, with no exceptions for tourism companies, which need tools for monitoring the use and profitability of all the production factors used....

What is Inflation



The term inflation characterizes a fundamental indicator for the economy not only of America but of the whole world. We hear about inflation daily as it allows us to understand the country's economic situation, and consequently, what is the purchasing power of the current currency. Let us, therefore, understand through this simple guide wha...

How to make your business survive at economic crisis



The fundamental point is the economic crisis that has shaken humanity, at least the economically advanced one with strong events that have destabilized it and made it almost immobile (not to say in a strong recession, live optimism!) for at least a couple of years now.The fundamental question, how to make your business survive at the time...

What are the consequences of unemployment?



Unemployment is an economic, political, and social scourge that affects all socio-professional categories (employees, workers, and managers). These direct and indirect consequences concern job seekers, as well as employed workers, business leaders, and the competitiveness of businesses. The additional financial costs generated by unemployment an...

Doppler ultrasound or simply eco Doppler



Doppler ultrasound or simply eco Doppler is a very useful test to get detailed information on the morphology and functionality of the blood vessels. In a nutshell, this type of test allows you to study venous and arterial circulation through a simple ultrasound to evaluate the state of the blood vessels and the flow of blood inside them.T...

Principle of Optical coherence tomography (OCT)



Optical coherence tomography is a non-destructive interferometric process allowing cross-sectional images of biological tissue to be produced with a resolution of the order of a micrometer. OCT uses a low coherence light beam, usually emitted by a superluminescent diode. Similarly to what sonar does with the backdrops (acoustically), due to the...

The technical basis of optical coherence imaging



OCT (optical coherence tomography imaging) is an invasive endocoronary imaging method characterized by a fine axial (10-20 µm) and lateral (20-90 µm) resolution allowing a very efficient analysis of the arterial surface as well as the first millimeters of a wall.The technique has improved progressively over the years until it spread in...

What is lithotripsy and its types?



Whether the kidney stone is blocked in the urethra or remains wisely in the kidney but exceeds 1 cm, it must be removed. There are three techniques of lithotripsy.In the first intention, on a calculus not exceeding 1.5 cm, they opt for extracorporeal lithotripsy. Performable externally or on an outpatient basis, effective at 70-80%, this...

What is transition elastography?



Elastography is an ultrasound diagnostic method capable of assessing the degree of elasticity of the tissues in a non-invasive way. Like ultrasound, which is complementary and which cannot be ignored, it is harmless and provides information in real-time.The application in the medical field of elastography starts with two fundamental assum...

The Structure of Interest Rates and the Yield Curve



As you know, the close relationship between bonds and interest rates and how they can rise and fall in certain contexts of the economic cycle. The cost of money, represented by interest rates, is not always the same and changes according to the reference deadline. For example, the yield offered by a one-year bond is different from that offered b...

Financial intermediaries and its Types



The financial intermediaries are specialized operators in investments for third parties in the financial market in exchange for a fixed fee or a percentage of the investment value. Financial intermediaries facilitate the meeting between demand and supply of capital. Credit institutions, banks, leasing companies, factoring companies, mutual funds...

Factors about The Savings Investment Process



One of the most important moments in managing your savings is the investment decision in products / financial instruments. A reasoned and conscious decision-making process starts from the knowledge of one's own preferences in terms of risk, their skills and objectives, as part of a broader financial planning process. The data co...

Everything you need to know about the capital market



The capital market ensures the meeting between economic agents who have surplus resources and economic agents who have financing needs i.e., companies, the state, or local authorities. Since 1980, with deregulation and de-compartmentalization, new sections of the capital markets have appeared and outperformed traditional markets in terms of tran...

Microfluidics and microfluidic chips



Microfluidics is the science that deals with the flow of liquids in micrometric sized channels. It is enough that a dimension of the channel is of the order of a micrometer or about ten micrometers for us to start talking about microfluidics. Microfluidics can be considered both as a science (studies of the behavior of fluids in microchannels) a...

Applications of BIOMEMS



Micro-electro-mechanical systems already have a predominant role in the electronics industry because they are essential in a large number of automotive, telecom, and consumer electronic products and systems. They are also among those responsible for the most important turning point in science in the engineering of the last decade when having str...

All you need to know about the epidemiology



To study the effects of a chemical substance or a physical agent on health, what scientific tools are available? There are two possible approaches available to us, experimental studies and epidemiological studies. In experimental studies, two groups of cells, animals, or volunteers are compared in the laboratory. One is exposed to th...

Current challenges to the health of Adolescence



A large majority of adolescents aged 12 to 17 consider themselves to be healthy. However, studies on the factors linked to their behaviors and lifestyles and on their use of the health care system show that this statement must be qualified. Although teens appear in many ways healthier than adults, they are also subject to certain specific risks....

Introduction of Microfabrication techniques



Different techniques have reached an adequate level of maturity for various commercial MEMS-based products, such as pressure sensors, accelerometers, gyroscopes, etc. Recently nanometric structures have attracted enormous interest for their unique electrical properties, magnetic, optical, thermal, and mechanical. These could lead to a variety of...

Current challenges to the health of women



There are some prevalent diseases in women that are good to know. We all know that sometimes we are more attentive to the health of those around us than ours, and this is something we should take into consideration. Furthermore, our lifestyle can also determine the appearance of some pains. Daily worries stress and missed periodic medical visits...

What is the purpose of deep brain stimulation?



Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a surgical technique, introduced since the late 1980s, that can mitigate the symptoms of Parkinson's disease and the complications induced by drug therapy. The effectiveness of deep brain stimulation has recently been confirmed by randomized controlled trials performed according to the principles of evidence-...

Cochlear implant: what it is and how it works



In case of profound deafness, when the hearing aid is not sufficient to compensate for hearing loss, a cochlear implant is used.The implant is, in fact, a very sophisticated electronic device that replaces the functioning of the cochlea, the organ of the inner ear responsible for transmitting sound to the brain. When deafness is severe, t...

All you need to know about Smart prosthesis



A smart prosthesis is a prosthesis that combines prosthesis function and artificial intelligence. We will first explain what prosthesis is and then define what artificial intelligence is to be able to lead to the term "intelligent prosthesis."To treat deficient organs, doctors have several methods. Among other things, one of these methods...

What is a Brain-Computer Interface (BCI)



A BCI is a neural interface based on electroencephalography (EEG), which is able to make the Central Nervous System (CNS) communicate with an external peripheral through appropriate electrodes. In the biomedical field, this "peripheral" takes on various connotations, from joint prosthetic systems to the remote control of powered wheelchairs and...

Challenges that IT Managers are facing



From the skills gap to privacy concerns, digital transformation has created new problems for businesses. Here's what they are and how to deal with them. IT managers will still be focused on digital initiatives this year but will have to review the processes put in place to ensure the success of their strategies. Digital technology crea...

Neurotransmitters: what they are and different types



The neurotransmitters are physiological substances which allow the transmission of nerve impulses between two anatomically separated regions. The neurotransmitters are physiological substances which allow the transmission of nerve impulses between two anatomically separate regions and put into connection by synapses, or nerve fibers, or the nerv...

What is neuroethics?



The neurosciences are interdisciplinary studies that set, including biology, mathematics, physics, chemistry, and statistics. It takes care of the anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of pathologies of the central and peripheral nervous system, its effects on behavior and of mental experiences.During the conference "Neuroethics, a map of...

Financing instruments for businesses



The company is financed through financial means made available by the owner or through third-party capital financing (loans, payment extensions, etc.)—corporate financing instruments.For their concrete functioning, companies need financial resources. These resources are the “fuel” useful to put in place the mechanism that will lead...

Exchange rate and foreign currency risk



By making some assessments between inviting investments denominated in foreign currency and in particular on the US dollar, certainly, at some point in your reasoning, you will certainly have thought, "Well interesting. However, the problem of exchange risk remains. What if the US dollar weakens against the Euro? If you are reading this guide, c...

Technological perspectives and reflections of neural engineering



The rapid evolution of the neurotechnology field, a Deep Tech segment with enormous economic potential, is rapidly contaminating research laboratories, clinical centers of advanced therapeutic applications. On the one hand, new neurotechnologies redefine what is possible in research, therapy, and human abilities. On the other hand, in-depth cons...

What is Market and Supply and Demand



We live in a world which is often called a market economy, what does it mean and what economic principles does it imply?What is the market? A market is a real or fictitious place of exchange. On the market meet economic agents who offer a good service and others who come to get it. This creates a network of exchanges. These exchanges...

What is optogenetics?



Optogenetics was developed in the early 2000s; it is the combined use of genetic and optical (light) methods to control genes and neurons. It is among the most rapidly advanced technologies in neuroscience and has the potential to revolutionize the way scientists study the brain. What is optogeneticsOptogenetics is an experimental me...

Types of bioreactors and their applications



Once in the stationary growth phase, the action is taken on two levels i.e., the type of bioreactor and the composition/condition of the culture medium. The first parameter allows us to calibrate the culture towards an adequate production of active principles. Depending on the type of bioreactor and the growth conditions it imposes, the followin...

What are the techniques to record brain activity?



In recent decades, brain activity investigation techniques have multiplied. The parameters on which the measures are based refer to the Spatio-temporal resolution, the degree of invasiveness, and the type of information (response) that can be correlational or causative.We list the various techniques which we will then briefly describe:...

Key Factors That Affect Pricing Decisions



There was a time when products were sold at a price desired by the manufacturer. The customer bought without delay, and the seller was satisfied. In this "ecosystem," the price was a mere monetary expression of the good, nothing more. Today selling products at a price established only based on costs is an impracticable strategy.In a compl...

Fermentation: how it works and what it is used for



The term fermentation actually means a more or less long and complex chain of chemical reactions that are activated by yeasts, bacteria, or enzymes in animal tissues in the absence of oxygen. Let's find out all about this process and understand what it is for. Fermentation can be explained as a way to release energy from sugar when there is...

What happens if the interest rate increases?



Increasing the interest rate is not good news for consumers, mortgages and loans cost more. But there are also opportunities like yields on bonds and government bonds are growing. For some years now, we had grown accustomed to very low-interest rates to historic lows. The economy is struggling to recover, and showing worrying signs of recession...

What is immunotherapy?



Immunotherapy is a treatment that aims to "mobilize" the patient's immune defenses against his disease. This is an important way for current cancer research. Several immunotherapy treatments are already available. Our immune systemOur body is protected by an immune system. It is made up of specialized cells produced by the bone...

What is the economic role of the financial market?



The financial market is based on the activity of two compartments whose functions are different and complementary: the primary market and the secondary market. - The primary market is the “new” market, that of securities issues. Savers can acquire securities at the time of their creation through banks or brokerage firms. - The...

Cells of Immune system



This category of cells includes various elements characterized by the ability to engulf or "eat" agents or materials potentially harmful to the organism. The macrophages are the kind of absorbs more prevalent in body tissues and are derived from phagocytes that circulate in the blood called monocytes. In some organs, phagocytes take on particula...

10 strategies to maximize corporate profits



Want to know about corporate profits and effective solutions to increase them? If yes, then you have on the right page. The deep-rooted belief in aiming for market share is the main and even more widespread managerial error on a global level. Anyone who loses market share or only plays with the thought of questioning them must face great difficu...

What is the lymphocyte activation?



The activation of lymphocytes is the consequence of their interaction with an antigenic pathogen, directly for B lymphocytes and through the molecule of histocompatibility complex for T lymphocytes. Antigens are recognized by different characteristic structures present on their surfaces; This activation thus allows the lymphocytes to...

Biosensors for cancer diagnosis



New bio-analytical methodologies capable of detecting specific biomarkers are today essential for better diagnosis of pathologies. European researchers have coordinated their efforts to introduce nanosensors capable of detecting a range of new biomarkers in biological samples. Current molecular tests routinely used for cancer diagnosis lack sens...

What is financial market and its types?



Like any other financial market, Forex is also tied to the logic of supply and demand. And for this reason, any trader should place in his "basic" baggage the understanding of the principles that move the supply and demand of the market. The contrast of these forces is the mainspring that can trigger the upward or upward evolution, reduction of...

What is the structure of financial markets?



Today the financial markets are highly articulated and allow families and businesses to do use of many different contractual instruments to obtain financing and to use their resources. This complex and varied structure of the financial markets is the result of an evolution centuries-old. They occur under the pressure of both the changing financi...

Methods of labeling of nucleic acid that enable their detection



Nucleic acids (i.e., DNA and RNA) can be readily marked with the various tags that allow their detection and/or purification. These markings can then be used to recover or identify other interacting molecules. A plethora of chemical or enzymatic methods are available to produce nucleic acids, such as those marked with fluorophores, radioactive e...

Neuromuscular disorders



One often speaks in a simplistic manner of muscle disease, but what is meant is neuromuscular diseases. What is the difference? Strictly speaking, muscle diseases are only diseases of the muscle itself. These include the muscular dystrophies, the muscle inflammation (myositis), and the metabolic diseases of the muscle, the metabolic myopathies....

What are the methods of measuring business performance?



How can you measure the performance of the various activities carried out within it? Measuring performance, many companies underestimate the importance of knowing in detail the productivity level of their company; there are those who claim that if at the end of the year, their turnover has increased, it means that everything is fine.If th...

What is the Credit market?



The largest financial market in the world, the credit market, allows governments and companies to finance themselves by issuing bonds and treasury bills. In terms of transaction volume, the credit market is the largest financial market in the world, far ahead of the foreign exchange market. It is the market in which the borrowers of capital and...

What is business ethics and code of ethics



Have you noticed that one of our most frequent topics of conversation is companies? Most of us work in or interact with companies, which is why we are so affected by their practices. To understand how a company should act and compare it with what it really does, we must know what business ethics is. What is business ethics?The defini...

What are the Causes of financial instability?



Since the last global economic crisis, economists, governments, and central banks in the individual economies have focused on maintaining financial stability in the respective countries, researching the causes of instability in the financial system, and defining measures that can counteract a future financial crisis. The terms "financial crisis"...

Structure and function of blood vessels



Blood vessels (vessel: from the lower Latin vascellum, meaning small vase, blood, from the Latin sanguineus) are organs of the blood circulation. William Harvey, an English doctor of the 16th and 17th centuries, is known for this work and discoveries on the functioning of the blood circulation. Let’s have a look at the structure and function o...

What is regenerative medicine?



Regenerative Medicine is a type of Medicine that, instead of treating the symptoms of a condition, trauma, or disease, aims to replace or rebuild tissues, cells, and organs. Regenerative Medicine uses molecular biology and stem cell and artificial organ research to stimulate the body's repair systems to heal tissues and organs normally impo...

What is Population ecology?



A population is a group of individuals of the same species, occupying one specific space and which arises as part of a biotic community. A population has its own biological characteristics or attributes which it shares with its organism components but also has characteristics or attributes of the group, for example, birth rate, mortality, age di...

Corporate sustainability as a competitive advantage for businesses



Corporate sustainability is now synonymous with growth and success. Until a few years ago, the belief that attention to environmental impact as part of the Company's Social Responsibility (CSR) was widespread, with purely legal or even ethical and moral implications, instead of disconnecting possible impacts on the business model and expect...

What is Microfinance: evolution, and practices?



It is rather frequent to hear the word "microcredit," often associated with other now everyday concepts, such as "fight against poverty," "help to the poor," "rich and poor countries." More rarely, the term "microfinance" is heard, so I will try to make a minimum of clarity. The concepts of "microfinance" and "microcredit" are linked but distinc...

Eco-sustainable business: 8 ways to grow



If the company is sustainable, the future is stable. But does being eco-sustainable pay? Are the environment and sustainability just branding, or are they a new way of doing business and innovating? Why does a web company like Linkedin install apiaries on the balcony of an office? Why is an automotive company like Renault so attentive to employe...

Different tissues of the body



A tissue is a structure made up of cells that perform the same task for the whole organism. It is possible to differentiate four basic types of tissue based on their mode of development, structure, and function. - An organ is made up of different types of tissue: - The parenchyma: composed of the cells responsible for the proper fu...

Capital Budgeting: evaluation of investments



The modern CFO knows how to govern the process and the tools that allow him to evaluate economic and financial sustainability. The evaluation of investments is not an exclusively strategic judgment but concerns the entire process of creating corporate economic value. This is a reflection shared by managers, aware that the starting point of the c...

Financial Statement Analysis



To analyze the performance and manage the growth of a company, financial statements are a handy tool.A financial statement is a summary document drawn up periodically. Information on performance, financial and accounting situation, and the development of a company from one accounting year to the next appears.It is presented in an o...

Factors Affecting Purchasing Behavior



Purchasing behavior is the consumer's behavior, understood as any individual who buys products or services for personal use, motivated by a series of cultural, personal, social, and psychological factors. These are studied in marketing precisely to understand what, where, and why consumers buy different products. The study of purchasing beh...

Stages of the Consumer Decision-Making Process



The consumer buying process is made up of various phases, and it is by studying and analyzing these phases that the managers of the companies' marketing sector shape their communication strategies towards potential buyers. Over the years, marketing experts have traced all stages of the consumer buying process, which are also called touchpoi...

What is biotechnology and its applications?



Biotechnology's possible uses are not limited to one area, but very diverse. The biotechnologists research the microorganisms, plants, animals, and humans, as well as the smallest parts, such as individual cells or molecules. Biotechnology has been used for a long time. Humans have been using living microorganisms for a long time, for examp...

Everything you need to know about cell culture



Cell culture Laboratory technique allows the growth and proliferation of cells, both prokaryotes, and eukaryotes, in a controlled artificial environment. Usually, we refer to in vitro cultivation of cells coming from multicellular eukaryotic organisms and, in particular, from mammals; however, even single-celled organisms (e.g., bacteria and yea...

Tools for investment decision making



Company managers continually target tangible and intangible assets, which can increase their business value and, in turn, lead to an increase in shareholders' assets. Capital budgeting focuses on identifying and evaluating possible investment opportunities that would allow managers to make the right investment decisions.The concept o...

What are Workplace diversity and its benefits?



More than a new trend, more than a tool for updating the company's image, diversity is a new reality, personal or professional. By building a heterogeneous workforce, the company includes and welcomes under-represented communities. In addition to ensuring its growth, it also contributes to the emergence of new ideas. Let's explore work...

The concept of Organizational Culture and its applications



Organizational culture is the outline of fundamental assumptions that a certain group invented, discovered, or developed while learning to deal with the problems related to its external adaptation or its internal integration. It functioned in such a way as to be considered valid and worthy of being taught to new members as the correct way to per...

What is the difference between a leader and a manager?



"Leadership is the art of getting someone to do something for you because they want to do it. »Dwight EisenhowerContrary to popular belief, Leadership and management are not synonymous. And if a person can be both a manager and a leader, he can also be a manager without being a leader and vice versa.If you consult the diction...

What Is Branding and best branding Business strategies?



Stop for a moment. Now think about what you are wearing, what is in your hand, and what you have enjoyed today? By enjoyment, in this case, I mean, for example, drink and food choices. Why and on what basis have you made these choices? Excluding such obvious facts like the fact that we visit the workplace canteen on a daily basis, there were the...

Why are microelectronics important?



It is widely believed that the transistor was the most important invention of the twentieth century. The first image shows the device that Bardeen and Brattain developed in 1947 in the Bell Labs; for this discovery. They received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1956, in association with Shockley, who in 1949 made the first junction transistor, the...

What are biologic drugs.



The term “biologic drugs " indicates all those new generation drugs produced to act only on a single structure, which can be a protein, a receptor, or even a DNA sequence, increasing the effectiveness of the therapy and reducing, at the same time, side effects.These drugs are the result of knowledge achieved in the biotechnology field....

What is the Foreign Exchange market?



The Forex (Foreign Exchange Market or FX market) is the financial market of cross-currency, a market in which a currency is exchanged for another currency.Forex trading is the buying and selling of currency crosses for speculative purposes, therefore to obtain profits. The foreign exchange market is the market through which individuals, c...

What is the role of scientific research in times of crisis?



Scientific research is known to allow a country to be competitive in the global "market" of knowledge, to keep up with the most advanced countries, and to guarantee the well-being of the population. The year 2020 comes with the crisis of COVID-19, and the death toll is nearly o.5 million due to this deadly disease worldwide. Let’s have a look...

All you need to know about Capital Budgeting



The modern CFO knows how to govern the process and the tools that allow him to evaluate economic and financial sustainability. The evaluation of investments is not an exclusively strategic judgment but concerns the entire process of creating corporate economic value. This is a reflection shared by managers, aware that the starting point of the c...

Principles of Corporate Governance.



It is a term that has become part of the common language when talking about a company is undoubtedly that of corporate governance and often used to indicate aspects of business management. It is a complex and multifaceted concept, but essential to understand some dynamics of an institution or organization.What is corporate governance? ...

All you need to know about risk management



Some too many inexperienced managers neglect risk management, an essential step in project management, regardless of scope. By not considering risk prevention at its fair value, we condemn ourselves to endlessly repeating the same failures. Slackening risk management is nothing but a serious management error. Let's see how to identify the r...

What are the risks of international trade?



The main objective of any global sales transaction is to exchange goods or services for money. However, there is always a risk that the seller or the buyer may not be able to fulfill his share of the contract. This reversal may be intentional or completely beyond the control of the parties. International trade involves many risks, which mainly s...

What is financial management?



Receipts must exceed expenses and revenues must exceed expenses. Until then, it's very simple. On the other hand, it is not so simple for management to guarantee the liquidity necessary for its activity. Financial management instruments are invaluable in this regard. We present here the most important instruments. The following tools are th...

All you need to know about reaction kinetics?



The study of the kinetics of a chemical reaction is the study of the speed of this reaction. In this article, we will review the distinction between slow and fast reactions, then the different methods of monitoring reactions, and finally, we will focus on the catalysis of reactions.At the end of this article, you must, therefore, master:...

Importance of Critical Thinking, Principles, and Goals



"The first aim of the teaching was formulated by Montaigne: a well-made head is better than a well-filled head."What a well-full head means is clear; it is ahead in which knowledge is accumulated, piled up, and does not have a principle of selection and organization that gives it meaning ". A well-made head means that instead of accumulat...

What is gene therapy?



For over fifteen years, genes have been used to produce, with biotechnological techniques, pure proteins that are used as biopharmaceuticals (insulin, growth hormone, blood coagulation factors, erythropoietin, etc.). Gene therapy is a medical technology in which DNA is directly used as a pharmaceutical substance. With this technique, the genes o...

10 emerging technologies according to World Economic Forum



The World Economic Forum's international experts' network has made it known, which are the ten emerging technologies of this year. It is a shortlist of the most promising technological innovations to face the challenges of contemporaneity and the imminent future of our societies. In short, they are the technologies capable of improving...

Gene expression: what it is and why it is important



Gene expression is the set of processes that lead the information contained in a gene to be converted into a functional molecule. All events of gene expression allow the transcription of DNA into messenger RNA (mRNA) and from the latter, through translation, to the formation of a protein. Typically, the expression contained in a gene is made up...

Globalization: definition, causes, social impact and risks



Globalization is a more than current phenomenon: the emergence of this concept goes back to the twentieth century, but on closer inspection, it was at the beginning of the XXI century that globalization had reached its climax. This is a rather intuitive phenomenon that concerns the progressive and widespread increase in international trade and i...

Tips for labeling medical devices- Medical Entrepreneurship



The labeling of medical devices provides critical information about the usefulness, possible risks, and safety instructions for their use, in addition to any other information associated with a device intended for patients or healthcare professionals. And it can request a variety of formats, from brochures to user manuals or any document contain...

Everything you need to know about workplace diversity



Due to globalization and the resulting demographic change, the term diversity in the world of work has become increasingly important in recent years. Our society is becoming more and more diverse, which affects ways of life as well as working methods. Issues such as feminism, immigration, gender identity, and the gender pay gap in companies are...

All you need to know about management discipline?



A long-term study has examined a total of 160 companies and over 200 management practices over a period of five years. The result was the for sustainable business success, which recommends the use of four binding management methods in combination with two optional management methods. If you analyze the literature, there are numerous recommendat...

Importance and seven principles of quality management



Quality management is the process by which a company seeks to achieve its quality objectives. But how important is it really? Our article gives you an explanation.Quality management: what exactly?It is the set of strategies implemented by a company in order to establish a quality approach within it. This approach aims, for its part, to im...

How to start a healthcare startup?



Opening health care is a modest investment that offers good earning potential. Healthcare is increasingly widespread both in villages and in large urban centers. They generally have a wide range of items dedicated to the care and feeding of the child.But the variety of products can be so wide that a healthcare provider can also present pr...

What Is Technology Marketing And How Should It Work?



Some managers of technological and/or innovative companies are skeptical about the interest of marketing in their market. They think that the specifics of it make it hermetic to the techniques and marketing tools used in the general public. They are not entirely wrong. Marketing must be adapted to the way professional exchanges work in these sec...

Organizational motivation and its effects



The central role occupied by Human Resources in the organizational field and the function performed by motivation for the achievement of high personal and, therefore, corporate performance is now widely recognized. The article, starting from a brief analysis of the literature, analyzes and defines the multifactorial phenomenon of organizational...

Conflict management in an organization



What do we refer to when we talk about conflict management in an organization?Although the first things that come to mind in this regard evoke negative feelings, the conflict in companies and the workplace can be managed positively and give rise to new growth opportunities. The new approaches to conflict management in working groups confirm this...

The different medical imaging techniques



In your lifetime, you have probably hurt yourself to the point of going a little deeper into what's going on in your body. For this, different techniques are made available to the doctor: radio, scanner, and MRI. But what do these barbaric names, yet so familiar? Read the rest of this article to learn more about the most commonly used imagi...

What is Management Accounting



Management accounting is a management tool that meets the need for external and internal figures for managers to measure the organization's performance and to have data to help decision-making. Management accounting allows action on the behavior of the people who make up the organization, particularly their involvement and motivation. It us...

How cancer is developed - Cancer biology



Cancer is an uncontrolled proliferation of cells within the body. This proliferation leads to the formation of a mass called a tumor. The tumor will gradually invade the organ in which it was born, altering its functioning. Cells can, moreover, escape from this mass, diffuse in the organism and lead to the formation of secondary tumors...

What are the methods of valuation of companies?



The valuation of a company is a delicate exercise. A science that is not exact and complex due to the multitude of elements to consider, this financial analysis is often associated with tough negotiations between the buyer and the seller. It is due to the asymmetry of information between these two actors and the dichotomy between their expectati...

How to define the Enterprise Value



Highlighting the values ​​of your company has become something very classic. We find them on most websites and especially in the career area.However, we are forced to note that it is often the same ones that come back: “Human,” Benevolence, Team spirit, and Collaborative. By force, these portmanteau words lose meaning,&n...

What is Immune System and Immunotherapy?



The principle of immunotherapy is based on treating cancer using our own immune system. The goal is to allow the body's defenses to attack cancer cells effectively.What is the immune system?The body can defend itself against external attacks (bacteria, viruses) by activating its immune system. The mechanisms involved during its mobil...

Schizoaffective disorder: how to live better with it



Dysthymic schizophrenia (sometimes called a schizoaffective disorder or acute schizoaffective psychosis) is a form of schizophrenia that particularly affects the emotions and cognitive powers. Seizures are usually accompanied by manias and/or depression with a tendency to suicide. The subject may be the victim of mania, delusions, and paranoia....

All you need to know about Data visualization



The human brain has a weakness for visual aids. It captures 80% of the information through the image. It processes visual data 60,000 times faster than numbers and texts. Today over 90% of communication is non-verbal.Our brain understands more quickly through a visual aid that requires less work. Looking at a picture helps it to digest mo...

The political theory of Thomas Hobbes



Thomas Hobbes (1588 - 1679) was the first among the great modern philosophers who tried to put political doctrine in close relationship with a modern system of thought and who strove to make this system so vast as to explain all natural facts scientifically. Including human” conduct in its individual as well as social aspects. He formulated a...

Compare and contrast the political theories



The three great theorists of the state of nature, a conjectured condition in which men would not yet have been associated with each other by a governmental system and the laws attached to it, were Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), John Locke (1632-1704) and Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778). Thomas Hobbes expound...

Political theories of John Locke



John Locke (1632-1704) is a first liberal author, attempts to develop a system of government in which the rights of the individual are preserved. By limiting state power, men will emerge from a state of submission specific to the absolutist powers. It is through the creation of a right to which they will have consented that men will become free....

Modern journalism



Modern journalism is the one that has adapted to the new habits of readers: tight deadlines and zapping between sources of information.The old journalists could write counting on the lack of competition: from printed newspapers to TV, practically no one inquired about more than one source. So you could also be a bit 'scoundrels and a...

How women can manage sexual harassment



The Weinstein affair and the “MeToo” hashtag have put sexual harassment questions at the heart of the news. The corporate world is no exception and is experiencing this problem as well. And yet, as an employer, it is often difficult to grasp the subject. How do you recognize and respond to sexual harassment as a victim, witness, or employer?...

All you need to know about Work-family balance



While the salary was once the main attraction of a job, a new trend is emerging. Above all else, employees are looking for an organization where they will feel good and which will allow them to balance work and family or work and personal life. Work-family balance is not the sole concern of companies, and even less that of working mothers. In r...

All you need to know Technical Writing?



Being experts in a certain subject does not mean being able to know how to spread it as well. Communication is a discipline in itself, and experts have to take into account many aspects that lie outside their job. This is why drafting a technical text can be more difficult than expected. This article explains how to approach technical writing an...

What is big data analytics?



What is a big data analysis project? How to do it so that the results are guaranteed? This service describes how big data analytics tools to use and which skills and human resources to use for data management. We have outlined a guide on data analytics, which, also referring to the opinions of important market analysis companies is exhaustive, i...

The Role of Internal Audit in Corporate Risk Management



In recent years, the importance of risk management for effective corporate governance has been increasingly recognized. It is imperative that organizations identify all the social, ethical, environmental, financial, and operational risks to which they are exposed and explain how they maintain them at an acceptable level.At the same time,...

Cybersecurity in business: challenges, risks, and practices



The challenges of cybersecurity in the business remain poorly understood and poorly taken into account. However, the effects of a cyber-attack, technical failure, or human negligence can seriously impact an organization's activity. It is essential to have security to guard against these "cyber" risks.80% of organizations have experie...

All you need to know about digital special effects



We define by special effects, or VFX for Visual Effects, all the animation techniques used to create an illusion within a cinematographic product (feature film, 3D film, video games, etc.). The purpose of these special effects is to give movement to action, simulate an object, characters, or even phenomena that do not exist o...

All you need to know about Big data management



Big Data management is the organization, management, and governance of a large volume of both structured and unstructured data. Big data management's role is to ensure a high level of data quality and accessibility to business intelligence and big data analysis applications. Companies, administrations, and all other organizations are implem...

What is the 7 layers of OSI model?



How is it possible to make so many machines communicate? How not to get lost in this maze of information? At this step, we will see this first trying to understand how the Internet was created and what standards were implemented to orchestrate this news ball. Here, you will learn what is the 7 layers of OSI model.How to communicate?Imagin...

All you need to know about Neuroendocrinology



Neuroendocrinology lies at the intersection of two major disciplines, neurobiology and endocrinology. These studies all forms of interactions between the nervous system and the endocrine system: the control that the first exerts on the second, the actions those hormones can have on the nervous system in order to adapt the organism to fluctuation...

What is Neuroplasticity?



A neuron is a nerve cell made up of a cell body from which emerge more or less branched extensions, the dendrites (entry routes) and an axon (exit route).Communication between neurons is provided by particular junctions, the synapses.The cell body integrates the information it receives from its neighbors, it synthesizes it and, if...

What are Sculpture art and its types?



When God set out to create the universe, after having created the sky, the earth, the plants and the animals, he took some of the silt from the earth, modeled a human being in his image and likeness, and then with his breath, he gave him life. This story, told in the Bible, is found in the legends and myths of antiquity.In ancient Greece,...

What are the different genres of films?



The action film, adventure, thriller and suspense, you can sometimes get lost with all these kinds of films. Let's try to demystify the different types of the film a bit.First, we must distinguish two main categories in which all films fall: Drama and comedy. These two categories are then subdivided into several sub-ca...

Structure of the nervous system



The nervous system of animals in general and humans, in particular, performs two essential functions: - Alone, he perceives the stimuli (plural of “stimulus ") of the environment, due to the senses of sight, hearing, taste, smell and touch in humans, and transmits this information to the centres that interpret them. - A...

Guide on the Pathways of the nervous system



Depending on the type of movement, numerous cortical and subcortical structures are directly or indirectly involved in motor skills. In principle, a distinction is made between two systems: - The pyramidal (PS) and - The extrapyramidal system (EPS).Both terms are historical. The pyramidal tract (corticosp...

Emotions: what are they? Theories explained



The definition of emotions is far from unanimous! If the literal definition considers that an external event triggers emotion, many philosophers and neuropsychologists defend the addition of internal causes, related to our thoughts. Did I first physically feel an emotion, or did it first manifest itself through my thought? The debate is also abo...

Russian School of Mathematics



RSM or the Russian school of Mathematics/math is an after-school program for k-12 students who want to improve their Mathematics skills. This program is available in 11 states, and it’s taught in a virtual classroom, making it possible to even enroll during the COVID-19 pandemic.About the Russian School of Mathematics program The RSM pr...

Parkinson's disease



Idiopathic Parkinson's disease, commonly called Parkinson's disease, was first described by James Parkinson in 1817 in the An Assay on the Shaking Palsy study. After Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's is the most common neurodegenerative disease. Symptoms worsen during the course of the disease, although treatmen...

Ethics: an essay on the understanding of evil



Ethics: an essay on the understanding of evil is a book by Alain Badiou, who is a famous French philosopher. He shows how the fundamental ethical principles serve to strengthen an ideology of the status quo and fail to provide an outline for the understanding of the concept of evil. He also proves that how ethics apprehend regardi...

What is Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)?



The transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a form of non-invasive neurostimulation which is founded on the principle of electromagnetic induction. The basic idea is to induce temporary changes at the cerebral level and is based on FARADAY's Law, which is very trivially that of electromagnetic induction.The Transcranial Magnetic S...

Consciousness: characteristics and peculiarities



If we were to use an essential and general definition to distinguish awareness from knowledge, it would be the following: awareness is something that allows us to be part of our reality, to perceive every nuance, every stimulus and internal process. Conscience, on the other hand, allows us to behave in an ethical and socially acceptable way....

Dance as an art form and entertainment



Dance is art, entertainment, and sport at the same time. It expresses emotions through a series of ordered movements or choreographies. To learn to dance, you have to know these movements (gestures, steps, moves, etc.). It is a difficult exercise, especially for beginners.  What style of dance to choose?Many people are passionat...