Login with Facebook

Role of Homeostasis in Human Physiology

Homeostasis is the state of living beings to maintain around a predetermined level the value of some internal parameters, disturbed continuously by various external and internal factors. The ordered set of subsystems that make up the human organism has a network of control systems, whose simultaneous intervention regulates the flow of energy and metabolites. It keeps the internal environment unchanged or almost unchanged, regardless of the modifications of the external one. Self-regulation of living organisms is a fundamental concept of modern biology, formulated at the end of the 19th century. Here, we will discuss the role of homeostasis.

Levels of action

Self-regulation mechanisms operate at all levels of system organization. At the molecular level, feedback inhibition (or feedback) limits the number of final products that are formed by the action of an enzymatic system. At the cellular level, the phenomenon of contact inhibition intervenes, for which in a reproduction of cells, the process of mitosis stops when they become so numerous that they touch each other. The close physical relationship would allow an inhibiting chemical messenger to pass from one cellular element to another to prevent further division. In tumors, this homeostatic mechanism is lost, and this explains the unstoppable reproduction of neoplastic cellular elements. 

At an organismic level, the various mechanisms operate in different ways; the hormonal synthesis activity of the endocrine glands is governed by the events that occur in the systems regulated by the hormones. For instance, the increase in blood sugar stimulates the secretion of insulin, which in turn increases the glucose, with a consequent decrease in its blood concentration. Hunger and thirst are also sensations aimed at maintaining optimal levels of energy, nutrients, and water. Also, at the reproduction level, an example of homeostatic regulation is provided by the relationship between predators and prey. 

The optimal functioning of each control system takes place only in a specific area, and its adaptability is therefore limited. However, within any sphere of control, a disturbance can exceed the compensation capacity of a given system, altering the transfer of energy and metabolites through that subsystem. If other control systems are able to compensate for the insufficient one, the stability of the organism is maintained, but with the loss of a part of reserve energy. On the contrary, the other systems cannot exercise this substitute; the entire network becomes unstable and insufficient to ensure control.

Systems involved in homeostasis

All the systems of the organism contribute to the maintenance of the, but the main control center is represented by the central nervous system which determines the most appropriate type of response (endocrine, immune, etc.). Particularly the role of the endocrine system is important because it controls and regulates the other systems of the organism. However, its response is slow (minutes, hours, days). Unlike it is implemented by the nervous system, which instead reacts promptly (fractions of a second or seconds), but whose effects are short-lived. Therefore, cooperation between the two systems provides complementary control methods.

The stimuli represented by the modifications of the external and internal environment are recognized and conveyed, through the afferent nerves to the spinal cord and brain which analyze them, associate them and compare them using an integration process. 

The feedback mechanism

A feedback mechanism makes a further modification of a troubled system. Most control systems use negative feedback, other positive feedback. The first consists of compensatory changes that bring the system back to its previous state, thus canceling or limiting the effects of the disturbances. Therefore, it opposes the changes and tends to maintain stability. Negative feedback systems are inherently unstable but are commonly found in endocrine and metabolic regulation. Some of the most typical examples are represented by the control of body temperature and weight. With positive feedback, however, there is a further increase in noise, which, however, allows us to carry out processes that are inactive in rest conditions, amplifying the starting signal (cascade mechanism). Examples are blood coagulation and glycolysis, which constitute self-limiting processes because the availability of substrates (fibrinogen and other coagulation factors, glycogen) is limited.

Sometimes, for a single variable (such as, for example, blood pressure and temperature), there are multiple control systems, which serve to guarantee the maintenance of a certain level even when not all the receptors and effectors of which they consist they are functional. This redundancy, therefore, represents a greater guarantee of control—a series of other baroreceptors located at different levels in the circulatory system. The atria and large vessels can send information to the brain.

Redundancy can also occur concerning effector mechanisms. Referring once again to the control of blood pressure, this can occur through changes in both peripheral resistance (contraction or relaxation of the vascular musculature), and in cardiac output (increase or decrease in heart rate or contraction energy). The effect of the abolition of one of these mechanisms is, therefore only transitory, because the other exerts a substitute. Redundancy guarantees the stability of the variable, despite many perturbations of opposite sign. The limits within which specific variables (temperature, blood sugar, blood pressure, bodyweight, etc.) are controllable by the negative feedback processes are usually set point). The oscillations around this point depend on the delay (phase shift) between the recognition, by the receptors, of the modification, and the response of the negative feedback system to that modification.

The frequency and depth of breathing in response to an increase in the partial pressure of CO2 in the arterial blood can vary rapidly due to the information that reaches the brain. They send the information to the brain via the vagus nerve and glossopharyngeal nerves from the peripheral chemoreceptors of the aortic arch and through the stimulation of the central chemoreceptors. Almost all physiological processes are regulated, at all levelsHomeostasis, by these control systems. They allow the living being to adapt its biological individuality to preserve its constants against the stresses of the environment. Pathological changes occur when the stimulus is excessive and /or the response is not suitable to satisfy this need for balance and stability of the organism.


Send Comment

Need a custom

We will write it for you.
Order now

Free Essay Examples

Free essays:

Asian vs. western leadership styles
All you need to know about the epidemiology
Applications of BIOMEMS
All you need to know about metabolic pathways
Broadcasting: How to Be Good In Front of the Camera
Bioconjugates for the Drugs Delivery
Big data analysis in evolutionary biology
Brain-Computer Interface systems with EEG signals
Current challenges to the health of women
Current challenges to the health of Adolescence
Competitive strategies for modern businesses
Computed Tomography (CT) images and their reconstruction
Doppler ultrasound or simply eco Doppler
DNA extraction
Dynamic Systems Modeling with Machine Learning
Digital Imaging: What Is It?
Everything you need to know about the capital market
Entrepreneurship: Conceptual Framework for Evaluating Technology
Entrepreneurship: Opportunity and Design Thinking
Everything you need to know about enzymatic kinetics
Factors about The Savings Investment Process
Financial intermediaries and its Types
Fascias: all about fibrous membranes
Funding sources for non-profit organizations
Genetic regulation networks: modeling in biology
How to make your business survive at economic crisis
How to choose the topic of the senior capstone project
Healthcare technologies that help patients with better self-management
Introduction of Microfabrication techniques
Introduction to Writing a TV Script
Introduction to Journalism
Importance of modern trade policy
Journalism: What is News?
Journalism: Broadcast media and Television Presenters
Journalism: Sources of News
Journalism and Law
Kinetic models in biology and Related fields
Know about the different forms of traditional African dances
Know about the history of science
Latest technology trends
Microfluidics and microfluidic chips
Molecular Imaging
Modern conservatism in America
Modeling and simulation of genetic regulatory networks
Nanomedicines to target tumors
Nonlinear Dynamics in Biology & Biomedicine
NLS (Nonlinear System) - Revolutionary system in diagnostic medicine and therapy
Neural networks: what they are and what they are for
Overcoming Hiring Challenges for Nonprofit Organization
Principle of Optical coherence tomography (OCT)
Politics and Religion: Relations and Conflict Issues
Principle and parameters of Volumetric computed tomography
Role of technology in the modern business environment
Role of Homeostasis in Human Physiology
Role of a digital artist
Role of gender studies
Skills in Journalism: Effective Interview
Systems biology - An understanding the functioning of biological systems
Self-assembly for biological systems
School of American Ballet
The Structure of Interest Rates and the Yield Curve
The New Media: Emerging Trends
The technical basis of optical coherence imaging
The Principles of MRI Contrast agents
Ultrasound: physical principles and image formation
Understanding social entrepreneurship
Understand the importance of investigative journalism
Urban planning in the US
Various theoretical perspectives of sociology
Virtual reality, what it is and how it works
What is the purpose of deep brain stimulation?
What is transition elastography?
4 Facts about Origin of Mathematics!
5 techniques to create an animation
13 Best colleges for political science in the world
3d Model Of Building
All you need to know about the ACA Code of ethics
Architecture and Democracy: An Introduction
Architecture and Democracy: Democratic Values
Architecture and Democracy: Democratic Procedures
All You Need to Know About a Synthesis Essay
An essential guide to understanding Film Theory
Application of Artificial Intelligence in Cyber Security
Applications of electrical engineering
Augmented reality: what it is, how it works, examples
Advantages And Disadvantages Of Social Networking
All you need to know about Cryptography
Applications of astrophysical science
All you need to know about architecture engineering
Applications of geological engineering
Artificial intelligence and medicine: an increasingly close relationship
An insight into Computational Biology
ACA code of conduct
A Rose for Emily
Applications of Mathematics in daily life
Architecture mistakes to avoid
All you need to know about Toxicology
All you need to know about Holistic Medicine
All you need to know about linguistics
An introduction to Linguistics and its subfields
All you need to know about Anxiety disorder
All you need to know about Drones
A Brief Insight into Political Science
Assumptions related to feminism
All you need to know about Byzantine emperors
All you need to know about labour economics
An insight into xenobots -the first-ever robots
An ultimate guide about Biomaterials
A Comprehensive Introduction to the Mona Lisa
Analysis methods of Transport through biological membranes
An ultimate guide about biochemical reactions
Analysis of brain signals
Artificial Gene Synthesis
Application to synthetic biology of CAD methods
All you need to know about metabolic pathways
Applications of BIOMEMS
All you need to know about the epidemiology
Asian vs. western leadership styles
How to Write a Personal Essay
Housing Needs in America
How to Write a Description Essay
How to Create an Excellent Scholarship Essay?
How to write a cause and effect essay
How to Hire the Best Essay Writing Service Provider?
How to Write a College Application Essay?
How to get the most out of your English lectures
How to write Expository Essay
How to succeed in your psychology class?
How to Write an Academic Essay in the Shortest Time?
History of Journalism
How Different Sectors are Using Artificial intelligence (AI)
How to write an informative essay
How to deliver persuasive essays?
How to Give a Convincing Presentation
How to write an essay on leadership?
Historical Art Still Around Today
Humanoid robot: what it is, how it works and price
History of Chemistry
Healthcare Advanced Computer Power: Robotics, Medical Imaging, and More
Healthcare AI: Game Changers for Medical Decision-Making and Remote Patient Monitoring
How to understand different types of English
How to Cope with Chronic Pain
How African American choreographers and dancers have influenced American dance
How mobile robot can do in logistics or in production
How To Become a Successful Entrepreneur
History of the Philosophy of Feminism
How is the climate changing?
How to Track Your Content Marketing ROI
How to Gun control In the USA?
Historical and contemporary role of labour in the modern world
How breast cancers are classified?
How the cells of our body communicate?
How the Lymphatic System Works?
How Digestive System Works
How to complete your capstone projects effectively?
How to write a research project
Healthcare technologies that help patients with better self-management
How to choose the topic of the senior capstone project
How to make your business survive at economic crisis
The Looming Energy Crisis in America
Top benefits of performance-based engineering
The More Languages You Know, The More Times You Are a Man
Things to consider while writing an Argumentative Essay
Top Ways to Improve Your Academic Writing Skills
Tips to Excel in Creative Writing
The origins of films in the early 19th century
Top career options in Architecture
The Elevator Pitch
Top finance trends 2020
The basic Structure and functionality of robots
The Way to Success
The election system of the President in the United States of America
Two-party System in United States of America
Top trends in urban design
The history and theory of African American filmmaking
Top benefits of creative writing
Tinnitus Guide: Common Symptoms and Treatment Options
The language of dance
The digital image processing management
Top famous politicians of the World
Top methods of political science!
The history of the feminist movement
The blood flow in cardiovascular system - Biofluid Mechanics
The best of Leonardo Da Vinci
The Structure and Function of Macromolecules
The structure of cell: a research on the bricks of the human body!
Tissue and organ construction: Adhesion and recognition between cells
The kinetics of the transformation processes
The Modeling of Biological Systems
Tips for writing a great thesis statement
The Defense mechanisms against infections
The impact of the technological innovations in medicine
Top journalism trends to know about
The relation between mass media & politics
Theranostics: Diagnosis and Care through Nanoparticles
The practical Applications of X-rays
The applications of Ultrasound in medicine
Transfer mechanisms of genetic information in Bacteria
The regulation of cellular metabolism in the diagnosis
The Principles of MRI Contrast agents
The technical basis of optical coherence imaging
The New Media: Emerging Trends
The Structure of Interest Rates and the Yield Curve
What is a Definition Essay?
What are diagnostic essays?
What is the relation between art structural engineering?
What is a Narrative Essay
What are robotics and intelligence systems?
What are the benefits of studying health sciences?
What is artificial intelligence and why it matters?
What is comparative Literature?
Why study neuroscience
What is Wi-Fi and how does it works
What is French history famous for?
What are Humanistic Studies?
What is covered in Biophysics?
What is modern journalism?
What is Virtualization? Benefits & Applications
What are modern public relations?
What is plasma physics?
What is teacher preparation?
What is rapid prototyping for 3D printing?
What is contemporary European Politics?
Why should you learn American Ballet?
What is engineering physics?
What is the purpose of African American Literature?
Ways to learn the Rhythm
What is digital art used for?
What are Enzymes and how do they work
Who is the father of political science?
Why Study Political Science - Job?
What is the Philosophy of Feminism?
What is a quantum computer?
Ways B2B Startups Streamline Their Conversion Strategies
Why do biomedical signals need processing?
What are the long term effects of climate change?
Why study labour relations
What is Holoprosencephaly?
What is antisocial disorder?
What are the important principles of evolution?
What is the cytoplasm and its function?
What is biopolymers?
What Makes a Good Leader
Women empowerment in modern generation
What is the history of political thought?
What is Gene recombination
What is synthetic biology
What is business cost analysis?
What is Inflation
What are the consequences of unemployment?
What is lithotripsy and its types?
What is transition elastography?
What is the purpose of deep brain stimulation?