Login with Facebook

How breast cancers are classified?

Breast cancer is not a single disease but many different diseases. The evolution of breast cancer is divided into five stages. The stage indicates how far the tumor has spread from the original site. It is the most frequent type of cancer that is found in the female. Differences affect survival rates.

Breast cancer can be cataloged in different ways. From a morphological (or histological) point of view, it is possible to distinguish which type of cells give rise to the tumor, the cells of the lobules (the small glands responsible for the production of milk) or of the milk ducts (which, as the name says, carry milk from the lobule to the nipple). The most frequent type of tumor is ductal carcinoma, followed by lobular carcinoma.

Depending on their ability to invade other tissues than the one from which they originated, tumors can be described as "non-invasive" or "invasive." Both ductal and lobular carcinoma can occur in the non-invasive (in situ, abbreviated with the abbreviations DCIS and LCIS, respectively), or invasive (infiltrating) form, much more dangerous because it is capable of affecting distant organs. It is important to remember that today LCIS is considered in all respects a benign lesion and no longer a carcinoma.

The stages of the tumor

From the point of view of its evolution, the tumor is classified into five categories or stages:

Stage 0

This category includes carcinomas, lobular, and ductal, non-invasive (in situ); both represent a high-risk factor for aggressive forms of cancer. Five-year survival is 98%, although relapses are possible.

Stage I

It is the initial stage; carcinomas with a diameter of fewer than 2 centimeters and which have not yet involved lymph nodes are classified as stage I. Most often, it is necessary to perform a quadrantectomy (i.e., the removal of about a quarter of the breast). In these cases, after surgery, it is necessary to undergo radiation therapy. When the tumor, although small, is present in several locations or particular risk factors are present, a mastectomy must be performed. In this case, radiation therapy is not necessary. Sentinel node biopsy is always provided for stage 1 tumors. The 5-year survival rates for breast cancer identified in stage 1 are close to 100 percent.

Stage IIA

It is always an early-stage tumor. This category includes carcinomas larger than 2 centimeters (up to 5 centimeters) that have not yet reached the axillary lymph nodes, or the smaller ones in which; however, the lymph nodes have already been involved. Tumors in which malignant cells are not in the breast but only in the axillary lymph nodes also fall into this category.

Stage IIB

The tumor measures between 2 and 5 centimeters and has already spread to the lymph nodes or is larger than 5 centimeters but has not yet reached the lymph nodes.

Stage IIIA

It is a tumor with variable dimensions that has reached the axillary lymph nodes (often fused together) or involved other tissues close to the breast.

Stage IIIB

The tumor has reached the chest wall, ribs, or skin.

Stage IIIC

The tumor has reached the lymph nodes under the clavicle and near the neck and may have spread to those inside the breast and under the arm, and in the tissues close to the breast. This tumor is defined locally advanced.

Stage IV

It is the metastatic stage, in which the carcinoma has spread to organs other than the breast.

TNM classification

There is also another classification system, called TNM, T indicates the tumor size on a scale of 1 to 4 (T1-T4); N indicates whether or not the lymph nodes adjacent to the tumor have malignant cells (N0: they are not present; N1: they are present); M indicates the presence or absence of metastases (M0: no metastases are present; M1: metastases are present).

"Hormonal," Her2 Positive And Triple Negative Tumors

Breast cancer is classified into different "types" also on the basis of some of its molecular characteristics. In particular, it is based on the receptors present on its cells. Receptors are proteins that are found on the cell membrane and that bind to certain hormones produced by the body, with a "key-lock" mechanism; this process activates the cell, promoting its multiplication.

 Together with the stage, the quantity of receptors is used by doctors as a prognostic indicator: the more there are (overexpression), the more cancer will tend to grow and evolve quickly. This classification, therefore, helps to estimate the rate of growth of the carcinoma and the probability that it will spread to other organs, that it will respond to certain treatments, or that, once eliminated, it can reappear.

 Based on the receptors, invasive carcinomas are called HR-positive (from hormone receptors) if they have many receptors for female hormones - and can be estrogen-positive (ER +) and progesterone-positive (PR +). Overall, around 70% of breast cancer cases are hormone-responsive. This subgroup is further distinguished in "luminal carcinomas A" (neoplasms with the expression of hormone receptors with favorable prognosis) and "luminal carcinomas B" (neoplasms that, although they possess the expression of hormone receptors, present a high risk of recurrence).

On the other hand, tumors with many type 2 receptors of the human epidermal growth factor are called HER2 positive (from human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) (breast tumors can be HR and HER2 positive at the same time). This type of neoplasm represents about 20% of cases.

 Carcinomas that do not have any of the three receptors are the fourth subtype, commonly called "triple negatives." They represent about 15% of cases. Some of these tumors are less aggressive than the three previous subtypes, while others are particularly aggressive and often recur, depending on whether they are non-basal or basal. In most cases, patients with non-basal type tumors have a lower risk of disease recovery and a better prognosis. Possible molecular targets are currently being studied to develop new drugsbreast cancer, including immunotherapy.


Send Comment

Need a custom

We will write it for you.
Order now

Free Essay Examples

Free essays:

An ultimate guide about biochemical reactions
Analysis methods of Transport through biological membranes
A Comprehensive Introduction to the Mona Lisa
An ultimate guide about Biomaterials
Big data analysis in evolutionary biology
Brain-Computer Interface systems with EEG signals
Biochemistry of neurotransmitter
Bipolar disorder: Symptoms, causes, diagnosis and treatment
Cellular excitability
Characterization of biological tissues, biomaterials
Characteristics of the byzantine architecture
Commonly Confused Words: Part 2
Dynamic Systems Modeling with Machine Learning
Digital Imaging: What Is It?
Different forms of dance you should know about
Data Science: Fundamental tools for data analysis
Everything you need to know about enzymatic kinetics
Electromagnetic exposure effects on human organs
Effects of Different Environmental Factors on Artworks
Entrepreneur trends to know about
Famous Ballet Forms
Four postulates of natural selection
Famous African American literature authors
Film styles and the types of styles for shooting a film
Importance of online journalism
Importance of 3d Modelling in Architecture
Introduction to Utilitarianism
Identity theft: what to do?
Kinetic models in biology and Related fields
Know about the different forms of traditional African dances
Know about the history of science
Latest technology trends
Mass transport in a biological system
Major themes in ancient Egyptian art
Major healthcare trends
Misconceptions About the Word “Introvert”
Nonlinear Dynamics in Biology & Biomedicine
NLS (Nonlinear System) - Revolutionary system in diagnostic medicine and therapy
Neural networks: what they are and what they are for
Nuclear fusion: What it is and how it works?
Role of Homeostasis in Human Physiology
Role of a digital artist
Role of gender studies
Risk management, meaning, and importance for companies
Systems biology - An understanding the functioning of biological systems
Self-assembly for biological systems
School of American Ballet
Schizophrenia - a rare psychiatric illness | Essay
The impact of the technological innovations in medicine
The Defense mechanisms against infections
Tips for writing a great thesis statement
The Modeling of Biological Systems
Understand the importance of investigative journalism
Urban planning in the US
Understanding the sociology of Race & Ethnicity
Various theoretical perspectives of sociology
Women empowerment in modern generation
What Makes a Good Leader
What is biopolymers?
What is the cytoplasm and its function?
4 Facts about Origin of Mathematics!
5 techniques to create an animation
13 Best colleges for political science in the world
3d Model Of Building
All you need to know about the ACA Code of ethics
Architecture and Democracy: An Introduction
Architecture and Democracy: Democratic Values
Architecture and Democracy: Democratic Procedures
All You Need to Know About a Synthesis Essay
An essential guide to understanding Film Theory
Application of Artificial Intelligence in Cyber Security
Applications of electrical engineering
Augmented reality: what it is, how it works, examples
Advantages And Disadvantages Of Social Networking
All you need to know about Cryptography
Applications of astrophysical science
All you need to know about architecture engineering
Applications of geological engineering
Artificial intelligence and medicine: an increasingly close relationship
An insight into Computational Biology
ACA code of conduct
A Rose for Emily
Applications of Mathematics in daily life
Architecture mistakes to avoid
All you need to know about Toxicology
All you need to know about Holistic Medicine
All you need to know about linguistics
An introduction to Linguistics and its subfields
All you need to know about Anxiety disorder
All you need to know about Drones
A Brief Insight into Political Science
Assumptions related to feminism
All you need to know about Byzantine emperors
All you need to know about labour economics
An insight into xenobots -the first-ever robots
An ultimate guide about Biomaterials
A Comprehensive Introduction to the Mona Lisa
Analysis methods of Transport through biological membranes
An ultimate guide about biochemical reactions
How to Write a Personal Essay
Housing Needs in America
How to Write a Description Essay
How to Create an Excellent Scholarship Essay?
How to write a cause and effect essay
How to Hire the Best Essay Writing Service Provider?
How to Write a College Application Essay?
How to get the most out of your English lectures
How to write Expository Essay
How to succeed in your psychology class?
How to Write an Academic Essay in the Shortest Time?
History of Journalism
How Different Sectors are Using Artificial intelligence (AI)
How to write an informative essay
How to deliver persuasive essays?
How to Give a Convincing Presentation
How to write an essay on leadership?
Historical Art Still Around Today
Humanoid robot: what it is, how it works and price
History of Chemistry
Healthcare Advanced Computer Power: Robotics, Medical Imaging, and More
Healthcare AI: Game Changers for Medical Decision-Making and Remote Patient Monitoring
How to understand different types of English
How to Cope with Chronic Pain
How African American choreographers and dancers have influenced American dance
How mobile robot can do in logistics or in production
How To Become a Successful Entrepreneur
History of the Philosophy of Feminism
How is the climate changing?
How to Track Your Content Marketing ROI
How to Gun control In the USA?
Historical and contemporary role of labour in the modern world
How breast cancers are classified?
How the cells of our body communicate?
How the Lymphatic System Works?
How Digestive System Works
How to complete your capstone projects effectively?
How to write a research project
Healthcare technologies that help patients with better self-management
How to choose the topic of the senior capstone project