Login with Facebook

Electromagnetic exposure effects on human organs

In recent years, there has been growing public concern about the influence of electromagnetic waves on the human body. At the moment, humans are exposed to various sources of electromagnetic fields in many situations that occur in everyday life. The use of EM waves in various applications has increased rapidly and includes the use of mobile phones, tablets, and mobile phone base stations. Near and far-field EM sources have several power levels and exposure distances that cause differences in EMF distribution patterns and absorption of electromagnetic power by the human body. Although the standards of security, in terms of SAR values limits, are regulated, are not explicitly expressed in terms of maximum temperature rise in the tissue caused by the absorption of EM energy.

The main effect is known as a short-term biological result from exposure to EM radiation, is the rise in temperature in the human body and its sensory organs, given by the absorption of electromagnetic energy. The thermal damage can occur in the human tissues under the exposure condition body part with intense EM waves. In realistic situations, the rise in temperature cannot be measured directly in the body. Instead, it must be estimated indirectly through numerical techniques. Therefore, the numerical analysis of heat transfers in the organs of the human body.

SAR is defined as the amount of EM energy that is absorbed in the unit of time by a unit mass element in a biological system W / Kg.

It is exposed to EM fields provides useful information on the absorption of EM energy in a variety of exposure conditions. Thermal modeling of human tissue is important as a tool to study the effect of external heat sources and to predict abnormalities in tissues. There modeling of heat transport in human tissue was initially introduced by Pennes based on the heat diffusion equation. Due to the simplifications of the model bio thermal plant, other researchers have extended and modified it. Although many have been proposed advanced models of heat transport in biological tissue, Pennes' biothermal model is still a good approximation and is still widely used to model the heating of the biological tissue due to its easy implementation and minimal data requirement. 

The field electrical induced, SAR, and temperature rise become more complex to determine how much the human body is non-uniform in shape and contains several organs. The characteristics of EM absorption and temperature distributions in the body resulting from different radiation patterns of the field from the near field and far-field sources are not well established. The biological effects associated with the absorption of EMF energy (electromagnetic field absorption), a systematic study of different distribution models is required EMF that interacts with body tissues.

The computational determination of the SAR is presented (specific absorption rate), and temperature increases in a human trunk exposed to radiation EM in the near and far-field. A heterogeneous human torso model was developed by Wessapan and group 3 to determine the SAR, and the temperature increases induced by the EM energy. Model heterogeneous human includes eleven types of tissue, skin, fat, muscle, bone, testicles, the large intestine, small intestine, bladder, blood, stomach, and liver. The electric field, the SAR, and the temperature assume different distributions in the various organs during exposure to the fields electromagnetic and are obtained through the numerical simulation of the propagation of EM waves and a non-stationary bio thermal model.

The effect of the exposure distance on the SAR and the increase of the temperature in each tissue organ are systematically studied. In particular, the SAR maximum and the increase in temperature in the internal organs are compared for exposure in the near and far-field. The frequencies of 900 and 1800 MHz have been chosen since these frequencies are used globally in a wide range of applications. Attention is turned to the maximum SAR and the increase in temperature in the organs of a body compared to the safety guidelines to consider the possible consequences of EM exposure and their implications for the thresholds.

Interaction between electromagnetic fields and human tissues

When electromagnetic waves propagate through tissue, the energy of EM waves comes absorbed by the tissue. The SAR is given by:

SAR = σ / p ∣ E ∣ 2

Where E is the intensity of the electric field (V / m), p is the density of the tissue (kgm3 ⁄), and σ is the conductivity electric (S / m).

Equation for heat transfer analysis by Pennes

The coupled effects of propagation are studied EM waves and heat transfer in transient conditions to analyze heat transfer and temperature rise due to field exposures near and far-field due to EM. The distribution of temperature also corresponds to the distribution of the SAR. This is because the SAR, in the tissue, is distributed due to energy absorption. Subsequently, the absorbed electromagnetic energy is converted into thermal energy, which increases the temperature of the tissue.

There is no phase change for any substance in the tissue. There are no reactions chemicals in the tissue. The heat transfer is modeled in two dimensions. The rise of temperature in the organs of the body is obtained by solving the Pennes bio thermal equation.

The transient bio thermal equation effectively describes how the transfer of

The heat inside the tissue and the equation can be written as follows:

pC dT dt = (kVT) + pbCb(Tb − T) + Qmet + Qext

Where C is the specific heat capacity of the tissues (J / kg K), k is the thermal conductivity of the tissue.

(W⁄m K), T is the temperature of the tissue, Tb is the temperature of the blood, pb is the density of the blood, Cb is the heat capacity of the blood, wb is the blood perfusion rate (1 / s), Qmet is the source of metabolic heat (W m3 ⁄) and Qext is the external heat source (due to external mechanisms, for example, those of an electromagnetic nature) (W m3 ⁄).

In this analysis, the transmission of heat between the tissue and blood flow is approximated by the term of blood perfusion, pbCbwb (Tb - T).

The term external heat source is equal to the resistive heat generated by an electromagnetic field (the electromagnetic power absorbed) and is defined as:

Qext = 1 2 σtissueE ∣ 2= p 2 SAR

The analysis of heat transfer excludes the surrounding space and is considered only in the model human. The surface of the skin is considered a convective boundary condition, where the convective heat transfer coefficient between the skin and the air is 20 W m2 ⁄ K

n (−kVT) = ℎam (T - Tam

Where Tam is the ambient temperature and ℎam is the convection coefficient (W m2 ⁄ K). It's supposed that no contact resistance occurs between the internal organs of the human body; therefore, internal limits are assumed as continuous:

n (kuVTu - kdVTd) = 0 

Tu = Td 

At the initial stage, the distribution of temperature within the human being is considered uniform.

Electric field, SARhuman body, and temperature distributions in various organs during field exposure electromagnetic are obtained through the numerical simulation of the wave propagation of the electromagnetic waves and a bio-stationary heat transfer model. The condition of exposure considered refers to the ICNIRP (International Commission of Non-Ionizing) standard Radiation Protection) for safety levels at the maximum SAR value of 2 W / kg (general exposure audience) and 10 W / kg.

Author: Vicki Lezama


Comments

Need a custom
essay?

We will write it for you.
Order now

Free Essay Examples

Free essays:

All you need to know about Neuroendocrinology
All you need to know about Big data management
All you need to know about digital special effects
All you need to know Technical Writing?
Basics the Game Theory in Cryptoeconomics
Business innovation ideas for making money
Biosensors for cancer diagnosis
Business Analysis: Pricing strategies and Demand Curve
Consciousness: characteristics and peculiarities
Conservation Economics
Cybersecurity in business: challenges, risks, and practices
Corporate Behavior
Dance as an art form and entertainment
Discrimination Economics
Determinants of Wages
Deontology Vs. Utilitarianism
Ethics: an essay on the understanding of evil
Emotions: what are they? Theories explained
Economy and Air Pollution
Economic Externalities and How to Deal with Them
Factors Affecting Purchasing Behavior
Financial Statement Analysis
Factors Influencing Interest and Exchange Rates
Fiscal and Monetary Policies in Response to 2008/2009
Government's Intervention in The Labor Market
Guide on the Pathways of the nervous system
Game theory in microeconomics
Globalization: definition, causes, social impact and risks
How women can manage sexual harassment
How to conduct economic research?
How to define the Enterprise Value
How cancer is developed - Cancer biology
Imperfect Information and Asymmetric Information
Imperfect Information in Insurance
Introduction to Labor Markets
Investment in Human Capital
Journalism: What is News?
Journalism: Broadcast media and Television Presenters
Journalism: Sources of News
Journalism and Law
Key Determinants of National Income
Key Factors That Affect Pricing Decisions
Kinetic models in biology and Related fields
Know about the different forms of traditional African dances
Latest technology trends
Latest dance trends
Microeconomic Analysis to the Demand for Labor
Modern journalism
Neuromuscular disorders
National Economies, Fluctuation, and Responses to Fluctuations
Neurotransmitters: what they are and different types
Nanomedicines to target tumors
Organizational motivation and its effects
Overcoming Hiring Challenges for Nonprofit Organization
Parkinson's disease
Perspectives on Television: Analysis
Russian School of Mathematics
Research and Development
Risk Sharing in Insurance and Asset Markets
Risk and the value of information
Structure of the nervous system
Structure of a Corporation
Schizoaffective disorder: how to live better with it
Segregation in the US.
The Role of Internal Audit in Corporate Risk Management
The Use of Law on Economics and Vice Versa
The political theory of Thomas Hobbes
The Game Theory in Social Media
Unions
Unemployment
Utilitarianism Vs. Kantianism
Understanding Auctions and Auction Theory: Part 2
Various theoretical perspectives of sociology
Virtual reality, what it is and how it works
What is Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)?
What are the different genres of films?
4 Facts about Origin of Mathematics!
5 techniques to create an animation
10 emerging technologies according to World Economic Forum
10 strategies to maximize corporate profits
3d Model Of Building
6 Medical Technologies that revolutionized the healthcare in 2020
All you need to know about the ACA Code of ethics
Architecture and Democracy: An Introduction
Architecture and Democracy: Democratic Values
Architecture and Democracy: Democratic Procedures
All You Need to Know About a Synthesis Essay
An essential guide to understanding Film Theory
Application of Artificial Intelligence in Cyber Security
Applications of electrical engineering
Augmented reality: what it is, how it works, examples
Advantages And Disadvantages Of Social Networking
All you need to know about Cryptography
Applications of astrophysical science
All you need to know about architecture engineering
Applications of geological engineering
Artificial intelligence and medicine: an increasingly close relationship
An insight into Computational Biology
ACA code of conduct
A Rose for Emily
Applications of Mathematics in daily life
Architecture mistakes to avoid
All you need to know about Toxicology
All you need to know about Holistic Medicine
All you need to know about linguistics
An introduction to Linguistics and its subfields
All you need to know about Anxiety disorder
All you need to know about Drones
A Brief Insight into Political Science
Assumptions related to feminism
All you need to know about Byzantine emperors
All you need to know about labour economics
An insight into xenobots -the first-ever robots
An ultimate guide about Biomaterials
A Comprehensive Introduction to the Mona Lisa
Analysis methods of Transport through biological membranes
An ultimate guide about biochemical reactions
Analysis of brain signals
Artificial Gene Synthesis
Application to synthetic biology of CAD methods
All you need to know about metabolic pathways
Applications of BIOMEMS
All you need to know about the epidemiology
Asian vs. western leadership styles
All you need to know about Smart prosthesis
Analysis of Economy: Output of Goods and Services (GNP), and GDP on Economic success
A Guide to Pricing Strategies
An Overview Of Economic Studies
Analysis of Fiscal and Monetary Policies
Analysis of Business Cycles
Analysis of Consumption and Investment
A Look into Regression Analysis
Analysis of Household's Consumption and Savings Behavior
All you need to know about Capital Budgeting
All you need to know about risk management
Art looted in wartime.
Appropriate use of Data in Economics
All you need to know about reaction kinetics?
A historical overview of Financial Crises
All you need to know about management discipline?
An insight into the error-correction models
All you need to know about Data visualization
All you need to know about Work-family balance
All you need to know Technical Writing?
All you need to know about digital special effects
All you need to know about Big data management
All you need to know about Neuroendocrinology
How to Write a Personal Essay
Housing Needs in America
How to Write a Description Essay
How to Create an Excellent Scholarship Essay?
How to write a cause and effect essay
How to Hire the Best Essay Writing Service Provider?
How to Write a College Application Essay?
How to get the most out of your English lectures
How to write Expository Essay
How to succeed in your psychology class?
How to Write an Academic Essay in the Shortest Time?
History of Journalism
How Different Sectors are Using Artificial intelligence (AI)
How to write an informative essay
How to deliver persuasive essays?
How to Give a Convincing Presentation
How to write an essay on leadership?
Historical Art Still Around Today
Humanoid robot: what it is, how it works and price
History of Chemistry
Healthcare Advanced Computer Power: Robotics, Medical Imaging, and More
Healthcare AI: Game Changers for Medical Decision-Making and Remote Patient Monitoring
How to understand different types of English
How to Cope with Chronic Pain
How African American choreographers and dancers have influenced American dance
How mobile robot can do in logistics or in production
How To Become a Successful Entrepreneur
History of the Philosophy of Feminism
How is the climate changing?
How to Track Your Content Marketing ROI
How to Gun control In the USA?
Historical and contemporary role of labour in the modern world
How breast cancers are classified?
How the cells of our body communicate?
How the Lymphatic System Works?
How Digestive System Works
How to complete your capstone projects effectively?
How to write a research project
Healthcare technologies that help patients with better self-management
How to choose the topic of the senior capstone project
How to make your business survive at economic crisis
How can immigrants blend in the American society?
How does the economics of war affect society?
Hate speech on social media.
How to Build an Economic Model
How to start a healthcare startup?
How can financial illiteracy harm you?
How cancer is developed - Cancer biology
How to define the Enterprise Value
How to conduct economic research?
How women can manage sexual harassment
Introduction to Urban Studies
Importance of dance in education
InMoov: how to build an open source humanoid robot
Importance of KYC verification to making the Blockchain secure
Importance of Rhythm
Importance of dance student evaluation
I/O control methods -types and explanations
Identity theft: what to do?
Introduction to Utilitarianism
Importance of 3d Modelling in Architecture
Importance of online journalism
Image processing in medical diagnosis
Introduction to USA Politics
Introduction to Comparative Politics
International Relations as a Major in Political Science
Importance of modern trade policy
Introduction to Journalism
Introduction to Writing a TV Script
Introduction of Microfabrication techniques
Introduction to Microeconomics
Interaction of Consumer and Firm Choices in Markets
Importance of corporate sustainability
Issues in International Monetary Macroeconomics
Introduction to Statistics and Data for Economics
Introduction to Data and Probability for Economics
Introduction to the Game Theory
Introduction to Econometrics
Introduction to Economic Information
Introduction to Market Equilibrium
Introduction to Economic Models and Application
Introduction to Empirical Research
Introduction to Econometric Data
Importance of Critical Thinking, Principles, and Goals
Introduction to Identification and Causal inferences
Introduction to Econometric Application
Intermediaries and Government in Financial Crisis
Importance and seven principles of quality management
Illiteracy in the USA
Introduction to Economics of Law
Introduction to Coase Theorem
Introduction to Social Choice and Incarceration
Intellectual Property and Product Liability
Investment in Human Capital
Introduction to Labor Markets
Imperfect Information in Insurance
Imperfect Information and Asymmetric Information
The Looming Energy Crisis in America
Top benefits of performance-based engineering
The More Languages You Know, The More Times You Are a Man
Things to consider while writing an Argumentative Essay
Top Ways to Improve Your Academic Writing Skills
Tips to Excel in Creative Writing
The origins of films in the early 19th century
Top career options in Architecture
The Elevator Pitch
Top finance trends 2020
The basic Structure and functionality of robots
The Way to Success
The election system of the President in the United States of America
Two-party System in United States of America
Top trends in urban design
The history and theory of African American filmmaking
Top benefits of creative writing
Tinnitus Guide: Common Symptoms and Treatment Options
The language of dance
The digital image processing management
Top famous politicians of the World
Top methods of political science!
The history of the feminist movement
The blood flow in cardiovascular system - Biofluid Mechanics
The best of Leonardo Da Vinci
The Structure and Function of Macromolecules
The structure of cell: a research on the bricks of the human body!
Tissue and organ construction: Adhesion and recognition between cells
The kinetics of the transformation processes
The Modeling of Biological Systems
Tips for writing a great thesis statement
The Defense mechanisms against infections
The impact of the technological innovations in medicine
Top journalism trends to know about
The relation between mass media & politics
Theranostics: Diagnosis and Care through Nanoparticles
The practical Applications of X-rays
The applications of Ultrasound in medicine
Transfer mechanisms of genetic information in Bacteria
The regulation of cellular metabolism in the diagnosis
The Principles of MRI Contrast agents
The technical basis of optical coherence imaging
The New Media: Emerging Trends
The Structure of Interest Rates and the Yield Curve
Technological perspectives and reflections of neural engineering
Types of bioreactors and their applications
The Role of Government Policy in Improving Economic Outcomes
Types of corporate responsibility
The Role of IMF in International Monetary Macroeconomics
Tools for investment decision making
The concept of Organizational Culture and its applications
The Conduct of Monetary and Fiscal Policy
The Basics of Financial Accelerator Models
Tips for labeling medical devices- Medical Entrepreneurship
The different medical imaging techniques
The Economics of Uncertainty – Introduction
Theories of Public Policy
The Game Theory in Social Media
The political theory of Thomas Hobbes
The Use of Law on Economics and Vice Versa
The Role of Internal Audit in Corporate Risk Management
What is a Definition Essay?
What are diagnostic essays?
What is the relation between art structural engineering?
What is a Narrative Essay
What are robotics and intelligence systems?
What are the benefits of studying health sciences?
What is artificial intelligence and why it matters?
What is comparative Literature?
Why study neuroscience
What is Wi-Fi and how does it works
What is French history famous for?
What are Humanistic Studies?
What is covered in Biophysics?
What is modern journalism?
What is Virtualization? Benefits & Applications
What are modern public relations?
What is plasma physics?
What is teacher preparation?
What is rapid prototyping for 3D printing?
What is contemporary European Politics?
Why should you learn American Ballet?
What is engineering physics?
What is the purpose of African American Literature?
Ways to learn the Rhythm
What is digital art used for?
What are Enzymes and how do they work
Who is the father of political science?
Why Study Political Science - Job?
What is the Philosophy of Feminism?
What is a quantum computer?
Ways B2B Startups Streamline Their Conversion Strategies
Why do biomedical signals need processing?
What are the long term effects of climate change?
Why study labour relations
What is Holoprosencephaly?
What is antisocial disorder?
What are the important principles of evolution?
What is the cytoplasm and its function?
What is biopolymers?
What Makes a Good Leader
Women empowerment in modern generation
What is the history of political thought?
What is Gene recombination
What is synthetic biology
What is business cost analysis?
What is Inflation
What are the consequences of unemployment?
What is lithotripsy and its types?
What is transition elastography?
What is the purpose of deep brain stimulation?
What is a Brain-Computer Interface (BCI)
What is neuroethics?
What is Market and Supply and Demand
What is optogenetics?
What are the techniques to record brain activity?
What happens if the interest rate increases?
What is immunotherapy?
What is the economic role of the financial market?
What are the factors behind illegal immigration?
What is the lymphocyte activation?
What is financial market and its types?
What is the structure of financial markets?
What are the methods of measuring business performance?
What is the Credit market?
What is business ethics and code of ethics
What are the Causes of financial instability?
What is MBA with Concentrations
What is regenerative medicine?
What is Population ecology?
What is Microfinance: evolution, and practices?
What is biotechnology and its applications?
What are Workplace diversity and its benefits?
What is the difference between a leader and a manager?
What Is Branding and best branding Business strategies?
Why are microelectronics important?
What are biologic drugs.
What is the Foreign Exchange market?
What is the role of scientific research in times of crisis?
What are the risks of international trade?
What is financial management?
What is gene therapy?
What is education economics?
What is regression analysis, and why should you use it?
What Is Technology Marketing And How Should It Work?
What is Management Accounting
What are the methods of valuation of companies?
What is Immune System and Immunotherapy?
What is big data analytics?
What is the 7 layers of OSI model?
What is Neuroplasticity?
What are Sculpture art and its types?
What are the different genres of films?
What is Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)?