Login with Facebook

Economy and Air Pollution

Environmental economics is one of the most important subjects of study in economics and sustainable development. Economists across the world agree that there is a direct relationship between economic development and the environment. It is noted that economic activities have the largest impact on the environment and vice versa. For instance, when people make decisions to invest, they have to consider the environmental impact of their activities on the environment.

Within this general subject, there is another subject known as externalities, which is basically the idea that one actor's activities may have a negative impact on a person. Humans are social beings who cannot exist without interacting with others. The economic behavior theory is one of the best models used to explain how human beings decide and why they make them. They are rational decision-makers who will choose what makes them happier and do away with anything that risks a loss for them.

This happens most when making economic decisions. Both firms and households are often faced with these decisions, among them what to consume, when to invest, when to save, and what to invest their money in. These decisions make up market economies, which are the interaction between production and consumption.

The issue of environmental concerns comes when looking at the impacts of economic activities on these the environment. It involves the issues of scarcity as well, where human needs are unlimited, yet expected to be fulfilled through the limited natural resources.

Sometimes, one party's decisions may affect a third party who has no knowledge or consent to these activities. And since resources are scarce, there is a need to share them in a manner that benefits everyone. Externalities exist in this situation where the cost imposed on a third party does not have anything to do with the activities that caused it.

Pollution is the best example of externalities. Consider, for instance, a company that chooses to invest in the industrial field, whose process involves the production of toxic fumes and other waste products. When such fumes mix with the air we breathe, people start getting stick, forcing them to incur huge costs in terms of seeking medical attention. Pollution comes out in many forms, all from human activities. The emission of fossil fuel gasses is perhaps the largest form of pollution. Those who suffer the biggest risks may not even have anything to do with what may be happening at any given moment.

When people smoke cigarettes, they affect those who may not even know anything about smoking. The smoke mixes with clean air, which may cause serious issues to the society. This is why most regions have come up with smoking zones attempting to control the pollution.

Air pollution

Our main focus in this course here is air pollution. This is because air pollution is one of the most serious risks to our environment. In the most recent study by the Global Burden Disease (GBD), it is estimated that air pollution, both indoor and outdoor, caused 5.5 million premature deaths across the world in 2013. Air pollution does not only risk the environment; it also has extensive consequences on human health, causing particularly respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. As if that is not enough, it causes a decrease in crop yield and the environment. Its impacts on biodiversity and ecosystems are far-reaching. Note that indoor pollution causes the largest number of premature deaths, but outdoor air pollution is more lethal since it takes up a large space.

As stated above, human activities are the number cause of air pollution. When people behave or make a decision without caring about the environment, they risk it facing serious issues. We are already facing scarcity in terms of other natural resources like water, land, mineral, and oil. When unclean air comes into place, it makes things even worse.

Different studies have been carried to discover the extent of air pollution to the environment as well as to the economies. Findings record that it has already affected human health, agriculture, and leads to a wide range of other impacts. And these impacts are projected to get even worse in the next few decades. This pollution is major fueled by the lack of addition and more stringent policies to restrict natural resources abuse. An increase in population to the extent that the limited resources cannot be handled is another cause. When there are many people living in one area, they lead to increased economic activities, which impacts the general environment.

Another major cause of environmental issues through air pollution is that different studies report energy demand, which will lead to increased air pollutant emissions. There is a clear rise in the emissions of air pollutants, which is projected to increase particulate matter (PM) concentration and ground-level zone. Today, the concentration of particulate matter and ozone is already way beyond the normal, and they are expected to worsen over the years. The World Health Organization has been making different approaches to curbing the extent of air pollution. They have provided Air quality guidelines, which reveal that the high levels of PM2.5 are a threat to human life.

Economic growth and development are important because it leads to a better lifestyle and happiness. When people are living in a region with a stable population, they are said to live a happier life than those who live in less developed nations. Unfortunately, economic development sacrifices the environment. Economists, policymakers, and other observers have established that the only way to protect the environment truly is by ceasing economic development, something that cannot happen, especially with the current market economies. Air pollution major began with industrialization and technological advancement, where toxic emissions are released into the environment. And now the rising emissions of air pollutants, which increase particulate matter concentration and ozone, are imposing serious effects on the economy. Reports and findings indicate that healthcare costs related to the pollution-related cause will greatly increase over the next few years. A report by OECD indicates that by 2060, the annual number of working days, which impact labor productivity, will have reached 3.7 billion in terms of loss. Today this figure is already at 1.2 billion on a global level. Economic theory indicates that output, maximum profitability, and the general growth of an economy depends on how much work is done per given period. If people keep losing working days because of health issues caused by air pollution, it becomes a big threat and concern to the economy and sustainable development.

Impacts of air pollution on health and agricultural productivity

Air pollution has always been one of the major concerns for environmentalists and economists. These concerns extend to the whole world as they are said to cause the largest number of premature deaths. Reports have indicated that the number of premature deaths is project projected to increase significantly in the next few decades. By 2010, the global figure I was at around 3 million people dying per year, which is estimated to increase to 9 million people by 2016. It is not only an increase in the level of PM2.5 and ozone that cause these issues. Other factors an increasing and aging population as well as urbanization.

When people die prematurely due to health complications caused by air pollution, a single person may not sense, but the figures are distributed prematurely across the world, creating a larger figure that can be observed. It is reported that the largest number of deaths occur in non-OECD economies and most in China and India. These are regions that are expected to have the largest number of premature deaths by 2060. A smaller increase may be seen in other regions, but they are not considered too severe; hence, they do not feature in many studies.

If the current increase in PM2.5 and ozone continue on the upward trend, we are going to see an increase in the number of illness cases. This will mean more hospital admissions will be required, more healthcare expenditure, and sick or restricted activity days. This will have a huge impact on productivity. In many markets, any lost minute counts for a lot of losses, which developing economies cannot afford. Over the past few years, there has been an increase in bronchitis cases, which is expected to surge even further according to ages. Children are affected by asthma, which increases the number of asthma sicknesses and symptoms in children aged between 5 and 9 years. There are more hospital admissions today more than ever.

We already mentioned above that human beings are rational decision-makers who make choices based on what benefits them the most. Their main goal in life is to gain happiness. A good life is defined by having material possessions, and most importantly, good health. This means anyone who is constantly in and out of the hospital cannot enjoy the luxury of living a fulfilling life. Besides, we work so that we can have a good life. But hefty hospital bill can deprive us of that happiness. Of course, there are insurance covers, which may be some shield against such financial constraints, but the covers are barely enough to cover outpatient services. Due to scarcity, many people do not earn enough to enable them to live to maximum benefits. Apart from increased cases of illnesses, there is also an impact on normal work activities. A person who is sick may not be able to perform their duties effectively. This further decreases their chances of making good money.

It is not only people who are affected by these issues. Increased levels of pollutants, and especially ozone, reduce crop yield, which affects agricultural productivity. The TM5-FASST calculation, and many other kinds of literature, crop yield is going to face a negative impact across all regions. There will be a significant difference between regions according to the level of pollution, but every part of the world will feel the pinch of air pollution. In many areas, the most affected are wheat and oilseeds, more than crops. We have already seen in the past how pests affect crops, especially seeds. Today it is the increase in air pollutants that impact the biggest threat. Many people are already facing problems brought by refined foods. Fresh farm produce has been the main source of nutrients required to restore human health and make people enjoy long lives. But if agricultural productivity is affected in this manner, it means even people who depend on these foods are greatly affected. Also, the quality of agricultural produces on the market has reduced significantly. If there are no good seeds, even the crops they yield will not have the required quality standards.

Air Pollution Effects on the General Economy

Companies need workers to achieve their production goals. The projected increase in the levels of PM2.5 and ozone will continue leading to higher cases of illnesses. The three main impacts of this trend are reduced labor productivity, increase health expenditure, and crop yield losses. The labor market is the largest market for economic development. Households are the producers on the labor market, while firms offer the demand. In this case, employers look for certain features when adding employees to their list, among them the level of education and experience skills, and health/age. When workers get sick at all times, they reduce working hours, which reduces productivity.

If someone spends most of their earnings on hospital bills, they do not live a happy life, which further means they cannot work effectively. The factor mentioned above all contributes to a projection of GDP, which is below the projection. The consequences of labor productivity and health expenditure keep increasing significantly relative to GDP. The labor market is the largest contributor to the general economy. It is often said that a healthy nation is a working nation. But when issues like the consequences of the air population start to affect the quality of life, it becomes very hard for an economy to grow. The good news isAir Pollution, governments are coming up with different policies to reduce air pollution.

Author: James Hamilton

Need a custom

We will write it for you.
Order now

Free Essay Examples

Free essays:

All you need to know about Neuroendocrinology
All you need to know about Big data management
All you need to know about digital special effects
All you need to know Technical Writing?
Basics the Game Theory in Cryptoeconomics
Business innovation ideas for making money
Biosensors for cancer diagnosis
Business Analysis: Pricing strategies and Demand Curve
Cognitive Computing- How does Cognitive Computing work?
Consciousness: characteristics and peculiarities
Conservation Economics
Cybersecurity in business: challenges, risks, and practices
Demographic trends and how they affect Economic Growth
Dance as an art form and entertainment
Discrimination Economics
Determinants of Wages
Everything you need to know about short-term memory
Economic and Policy Impacts of Demographics
Ethics: an essay on the understanding of evil
Emotions: what are they? Theories explained
Factors of Demographic Data Collection
Factors Affecting Purchasing Behavior
Financial Statement Analysis
Factors Influencing Interest and Exchange Rates
Government's Intervention in The Labor Market
Guide on the Pathways of the nervous system
Game theory in microeconomics
Globalization: definition, causes, social impact and risks
How Relativism Promotes Pluralism and Tolerance
How to use the audience’s feedback to write a news report
History of silent cinema
How news report can be strengthened through multimedia
Introduction to Population Problems
Imperfect Information and Asymmetric Information
Imperfect Information in Insurance
Introduction to Labor Markets
Journalism: What is News?
Journalism: Broadcast media and Television Presenters
Journalism: Sources of News
Journalism and Law
Key Determinants of National Income
Key Factors That Affect Pricing Decisions
Kinetic models in biology and Related fields
Know about the different forms of traditional African dances
Latest technology trends
Latest dance trends
Magnetoencephalography (MEG)
Microeconomic Analysis to the Demand for Labor
Neuromuscular disorders
National Economies, Fluctuation, and Responses to Fluctuations
Neurotransmitters: what they are and different types
Nanomedicines to target tumors
Objections to utilitarianism
Organizational motivation and its effects
Overcoming Hiring Challenges for Nonprofit Organization
Population Demographics
Recurrent neural networks (RNN) for speech detection
Russian School of Mathematics
Research and Development
Risk Sharing in Insurance and Asset Markets
Stochastic optimization methods in deep learning?
Structure of the nervous system
Structure of a Corporation
Schizoaffective disorder: how to live better with it
The climate change denial
The techniques of basic cinematography
The Endosymbiotic Theory
The Role of Internal Audit in Corporate Risk Management
Utilitarianism Vs. Kantianism
Understanding Auctions and Auction Theory: Part 2
Various theoretical perspectives of sociology
Virtual reality, what it is and how it works
What are the linear models in machine learning?
What is Convolutional Neural Network
4 Facts about Origin of Mathematics!
5 techniques to create an animation
10 emerging technologies according to World Economic Forum
10 strategies to maximize corporate profits
3d Model Of Building
6 Medical Technologies that revolutionized the healthcare in 2020
All you need to know about the ACA Code of ethics
Architecture and Democracy: An Introduction
Architecture and Democracy: Democratic Values
Architecture and Democracy: Democratic Procedures
All You Need to Know About a Synthesis Essay
An essential guide to understanding Film Theory
Application of Artificial Intelligence in Cyber Security
Applications of electrical engineering
Augmented reality: what it is, how it works, examples
Advantages And Disadvantages Of Social Networking
All you need to know about Cryptography
Applications of astrophysical science
All you need to know about architecture engineering
Applications of geological engineering
Artificial intelligence and medicine: an increasingly close relationship
An insight into Computational Biology
ACA code of conduct
A Rose for Emily
Applications of Mathematics in daily life
Architecture mistakes to avoid
All you need to know about Toxicology
All you need to know about Holistic Medicine
All you need to know about linguistics
An introduction to Linguistics and its subfields
All you need to know about Anxiety disorder
All you need to know about Drones
A Brief Insight into Political Science
Assumptions related to feminism
All you need to know about Byzantine emperors
All you need to know about labour economics
An insight into xenobots -the first-ever robots
An ultimate guide about Biomaterials
A Comprehensive Introduction to the Mona Lisa
Analysis methods of Transport through biological membranes
An ultimate guide about biochemical reactions
Analysis of brain signals
Artificial Gene Synthesis
Application to synthetic biology of CAD methods
All you need to know about metabolic pathways
Applications of BIOMEMS
All you need to know about the epidemiology
Asian vs. western leadership styles
All you need to know about Smart prosthesis
Analysis of Economy: Output of Goods and Services (GNP), and GDP on Economic success
A Guide to Pricing Strategies
An Overview Of Economic Studies
Analysis of Fiscal and Monetary Policies
Analysis of Business Cycles
Analysis of Consumption and Investment
A Look into Regression Analysis
Analysis of Household's Consumption and Savings Behavior
All you need to know about Capital Budgeting
All you need to know about risk management
Art looted in wartime.
Appropriate use of Data in Economics
All you need to know about reaction kinetics?
A historical overview of Financial Crises
All you need to know about management discipline?
An insight into the error-correction models
All you need to know about Data visualization
All you need to know about Work-family balance
All you need to know Technical Writing?
All you need to know about digital special effects
All you need to know about Big data management
All you need to know about Neuroendocrinology
How to Write a Personal Essay
Housing Needs in America
How to Write a Description Essay
How to Create an Excellent Scholarship Essay?
How to write a cause and effect essay
How to Hire the Best Essay Writing Service Provider?
How to Write a College Application Essay?
How to get the most out of your English lectures
How to write Expository Essay
How to succeed in your psychology class?
How to Write an Academic Essay in the Shortest Time?
History of Journalism
How Different Sectors are Using Artificial intelligence (AI)
How to write an informative essay
How to deliver persuasive essays?
How to Give a Convincing Presentation
How to write an essay on leadership?
Historical Art Still Around Today
Humanoid robot: what it is, how it works and price
History of Chemistry
Healthcare Advanced Computer Power: Robotics, Medical Imaging, and More
Healthcare AI: Game Changers for Medical Decision-Making and Remote Patient Monitoring
How to understand different types of English
How to Cope with Chronic Pain
How African American choreographers and dancers have influenced American dance
How mobile robot can do in logistics or in production
How To Become a Successful Entrepreneur
History of the Philosophy of Feminism
How is the climate changing?
How to Track Your Content Marketing ROI
How to Gun control In the USA?
Historical and contemporary role of labour in the modern world
How breast cancers are classified?
How the cells of our body communicate?
How the Lymphatic System Works?
How Digestive System Works
How to complete your capstone projects effectively?
How to write a research project
Healthcare technologies that help patients with better self-management
How to choose the topic of the senior capstone project
How to make your business survive at economic crisis
How can immigrants blend in the American society?
How does the economics of war affect society?
Hate speech on social media.
How to Build an Economic Model
How to start a healthcare startup?
How can financial illiteracy harm you?
How cancer is developed - Cancer biology
How to define the Enterprise Value
How to conduct economic research?
How women can manage sexual harassment
How to use quotes in your news reports?
How news report can be strengthened through multimedia
History of silent cinema
How to use the audience’s feedback to write a news report
How Relativism Promotes Pluralism and Tolerance
Introduction to Urban Studies
Importance of dance in education
InMoov: how to build an open source humanoid robot
Importance of KYC verification to making the Blockchain secure
Importance of Rhythm
Importance of dance student evaluation
I/O control methods -types and explanations
Identity theft: what to do?
Introduction to Utilitarianism
Importance of 3d Modelling in Architecture
Importance of online journalism
Image processing in medical diagnosis
Introduction to USA Politics
Introduction to Comparative Politics
International Relations as a Major in Political Science
Importance of modern trade policy
Introduction to Journalism
Introduction to Writing a TV Script
Introduction of Microfabrication techniques
Introduction to Microeconomics
Interaction of Consumer and Firm Choices in Markets
Importance of corporate sustainability
Issues in International Monetary Macroeconomics
Introduction to Statistics and Data for Economics
Introduction to Data and Probability for Economics
Introduction to the Game Theory
Introduction to Econometrics
Introduction to Economic Information
Introduction to Market Equilibrium
Introduction to Economic Models and Application
Introduction to Empirical Research
Introduction to Econometric Data
Importance of Critical Thinking, Principles, and Goals
Introduction to Identification and Causal inferences
Introduction to Econometric Application
Intermediaries and Government in Financial Crisis
Importance and seven principles of quality management
Illiteracy in the USA
Introduction to Economics of Law
Introduction to Coase Theorem
Introduction to Social Choice and Incarceration
Intellectual Property and Product Liability
Investment in Human Capital
Introduction to Labor Markets
Imperfect Information in Insurance
Imperfect Information and Asymmetric Information
Introduction to Population Problems
The Looming Energy Crisis in America
Top benefits of performance-based engineering
The More Languages You Know, The More Times You Are a Man
Things to consider while writing an Argumentative Essay
Top Ways to Improve Your Academic Writing Skills
Tips to Excel in Creative Writing
The origins of films in the early 19th century
Top career options in Architecture
The Elevator Pitch
Top finance trends 2020
The basic Structure and functionality of robots
The Way to Success
The election system of the President in the United States of America
Two-party System in United States of America
Top trends in urban design
The history and theory of African American filmmaking
Top benefits of creative writing
Tinnitus Guide: Common Symptoms and Treatment Options
The language of dance
The digital image processing management
Top famous politicians of the World
Top methods of political science!
The history of the feminist movement
The blood flow in cardiovascular system - Biofluid Mechanics
The best of Leonardo Da Vinci
The Structure and Function of Macromolecules
The structure of cell: a research on the bricks of the human body!
Tissue and organ construction: Adhesion and recognition between cells
The kinetics of the transformation processes
The Modeling of Biological Systems
Tips for writing a great thesis statement
The Defense mechanisms against infections
The impact of the technological innovations in medicine
Top journalism trends to know about
The relation between mass media & politics
Theranostics: Diagnosis and Care through Nanoparticles
The practical Applications of X-rays
The applications of Ultrasound in medicine
Transfer mechanisms of genetic information in Bacteria
The regulation of cellular metabolism in the diagnosis
The Principles of MRI Contrast agents
The technical basis of optical coherence imaging
The New Media: Emerging Trends
The Structure of Interest Rates and the Yield Curve
Technological perspectives and reflections of neural engineering
Types of bioreactors and their applications
The Role of Government Policy in Improving Economic Outcomes
Types of corporate responsibility
The Role of IMF in International Monetary Macroeconomics
Tools for investment decision making
The concept of Organizational Culture and its applications
The Conduct of Monetary and Fiscal Policy
The Basics of Financial Accelerator Models
Tips for labeling medical devices- Medical Entrepreneurship
The different medical imaging techniques
The Economics of Uncertainty – Introduction
Theories of Public Policy
The Game Theory in Social Media
The political theory of Thomas Hobbes
The Use of Law on Economics and Vice Versa
The Role of Internal Audit in Corporate Risk Management
The Endosymbiotic Theory
The techniques of basic cinematography
The climate change denial
What is a Definition Essay?
What are diagnostic essays?
What is the relation between art structural engineering?
What is a Narrative Essay
What are robotics and intelligence systems?
What are the benefits of studying health sciences?
What is artificial intelligence and why it matters?
What is comparative Literature?
Why study neuroscience
What is Wi-Fi and how does it works
What is French history famous for?
What are Humanistic Studies?
What is covered in Biophysics?
What is modern journalism?
What is Virtualization? Benefits & Applications
What are modern public relations?
What is plasma physics?
What is teacher preparation?
What is rapid prototyping for 3D printing?
What is contemporary European Politics?
Why should you learn American Ballet?
What is engineering physics?
What is the purpose of African American Literature?
Ways to learn the Rhythm
What is digital art used for?
What are Enzymes and how do they work
Who is the father of political science?
Why Study Political Science - Job?
What is the Philosophy of Feminism?
What is a quantum computer?
Ways B2B Startups Streamline Their Conversion Strategies
Why do biomedical signals need processing?
What are the long term effects of climate change?
Why study labour relations
What is Holoprosencephaly?
What is antisocial disorder?
What are the important principles of evolution?
What is the cytoplasm and its function?
What is biopolymers?
What Makes a Good Leader
Women empowerment in modern generation
What is the history of political thought?
What is Gene recombination
What is synthetic biology
What is business cost analysis?
What is Inflation
What are the consequences of unemployment?
What is lithotripsy and its types?
What is transition elastography?
What is the purpose of deep brain stimulation?
What is a Brain-Computer Interface (BCI)
What is neuroethics?
What is Market and Supply and Demand
What is optogenetics?
What are the techniques to record brain activity?
What happens if the interest rate increases?
What is immunotherapy?
What is the economic role of the financial market?
What are the factors behind illegal immigration?
What is the lymphocyte activation?
What is financial market and its types?
What is the structure of financial markets?
What are the methods of measuring business performance?
What is the Credit market?
What is business ethics and code of ethics
What are the Causes of financial instability?
What is MBA with Concentrations
What is regenerative medicine?
What is Population ecology?
What is Microfinance: evolution, and practices?
What is biotechnology and its applications?
What are Workplace diversity and its benefits?
What is the difference between a leader and a manager?
What Is Branding and best branding Business strategies?
Why are microelectronics important?
What are biologic drugs.
What is the Foreign Exchange market?
What is the role of scientific research in times of crisis?
What are the risks of international trade?
What is financial management?
What is gene therapy?
What is education economics?
What is regression analysis, and why should you use it?
What Is Technology Marketing And How Should It Work?
What is Management Accounting
What are the methods of valuation of companies?
What is Immune System and Immunotherapy?
What is big data analytics?
What is the 7 layers of OSI model?
What is Neuroplasticity?
What are Sculpture art and its types?
What are the different genres of films?
What is Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)?
What is TES-Transcranial electrical stimulation?
What is Relativism?
What is Vaccine skepticism, and what to do about it?
What happens in the brain when learning?
What is the deep neural network?
What is Convolutional Neural Network
What are the linear models in machine learning?