Login with Facebook

Characterization of biological tissues, biomaterials

In the broad and multidisciplinary panorama of bioengineering, the study of biological tissues and biomaterials occupies a broad spectrum role both in their clinical and methodological relevance. In particular, the tissues are characterized by a multi-physical and mechano-biological behavior in which the mechanics are certainly a relevant part, especially considering the relationship between physio-pathological conditions and the properties of the tissues. Biological tissues are characterized by highly non-linear, viscoelastic, and generally anisotropic mechanical behavior. The properties of the tissues regulate, in turn, numerous pathophysiological mechanisms that influence the activity and functionality of biological macrostructures (e.g., bone tissue, articular cartilage, blood vessels). 

Alongside biological tissues, biomaterials used in biomedical devices (e.g., bone prostheses, implants, stents) are also subject to mechanical and multi-physical characterization in order to guarantee their functionality and biocompatibility. The conception, prototyping, and development of innovative materials and devices represent, in fact, a sector in continuous expansion and with promising prospects. The characterization, the modeling, and analysis of the mechanical behavior of biological tissues and biocompatible materials are, therefore, fundamental themes for the development of design and analysis methodology (experimental or computational) with clinical relevance. 

It is important to underline that these applications are strongly characterized by multi-scale mechanisms (e.g., the tissue response as a whole depends on the properties and spatial organization on all scales. It means from the molecular scale to the characteristic length of the entire organ; the biocompatibility of a material depends on the cellular response to the nanoscale) and multiphysics (e.g., fluid-structure interactions, poroelastic mechanisms, transport-reaction-diffusion mechanisms). It can be addressed through knowledge, methods, and strategies in common with numerous other fields of 'Engineering and, in particular, of Mechanics.

Within the multidisciplinary field of bioengineering, the research on biomaterials and tissues covers a central role for clinical and methodological approaches. In this framework, mechanics and biological processes (mechano-biology) strongly couple each other, determining the physiological behavior of biological structures, as well as the onset of pathologies, in a complex multiphysics environment. Biological tissues are characterized by highly nonlinear mechanical behavior, viscoelasticity, anisotropy as well as an adaptive process. These properties are strictly related to physio-pathologic mechanisms that affect the functions of tissues at all scales, which, in turn, determine the response of macro-biological structures (e.g., bone tissue, articular cartilage, blood vessels, etc.). Moreover, biomaterials used in biomedical devices (e.g., bone prosthesis, implants, stents, etc.) are also of paramount relevance, and their design is a challenging topic as they should be biocompatible and able to replace damaged tissue/structures with proper functionality. 

The above concepts show how the modeling of innovative materials and devices is a growing field of research with promising scientific and clinical perspectives. In particular, the characterization and the modeling of the mechanical behavior of tissues and biomaterials should address advanced and novel multi-scale. For example, the response of tissue highly depends on the arrangement of constituents, down from the molecular scale while the biocompatibility of materials depends on the cellular response at the nanoscale) and multiphysics. (e.g., fluid-structure interaction; poroelastic mechanisms; transport-reaction transport phenomena) approaches in a multi-disciplinary environment.

Tissue regeneration

Tissue regeneration techniques are also used in modern aesthetic medicine and current cosmetics, which provides for the replacement of conventional cosmetic products, built on the concept of masking imperfections. With new classes of compounds/formulations which is called cosmeceuticals, capable of eliciting responses, organic products that "naturally" revitalize the skin tissue, correcting the aging imperfections. 

In fact, the recent discovery of stem cells also in dermo-epidermal structures is giving new impetus to the development of cosmeceuticals aimed at activating this cell population. 

Numerous factors are involved in the differentiation and proliferation processes of the skin area, among all, those of growth for the epithelium plays a fundamental role not only in the epithelial district but above all in the supportive connective tissue, thus becoming primary factors for all healing mechanisms. The interactions between epithelium and connective tissue are fundamental for the survival of the tissue itself, and these interactions are determined by small signal molecules that can alter and/or control the homeostatic balance of the skin district itself.

The molecular correlation between these processes is still not fully known today and represents one of the most important open challenges in the biomedical field.

The regeneration of tissues and whole organs, starting from stem cells, is one of the most promising frontiers of biomedical research. It is on the perspectives that this field of research opens up, which trusts the scientific community to identify the cure for pathologies in which the selective death of a particular type of cells, such as in Parkinson's disease, heart disease, and diabetes. What are the mechanisms that regulate the fate of stem cells in maintaining tissue integrity? And how are these same mechanisms reprogrammed in pathological conditions, such as cancer and diabetes, or during the physiological wound healing process?

Throughout the adult life of the organism, there is a continuous need to produce new cells to replace those lost during differentiation, cellular aging, or tissue damage. Stem cells take care of ensuring homeostasis of the tissues. The cells are capable of self-renewal but also capable of generating the progenitors, which, by differentiating, give rise to tissues and organs. But it is not the only function of the stem cells. These particular cells are also the protagonists of the injury response.

Among the most common and best-studied lesions, epidermal wounds are high on the list. The skin is, in fact, a system with high regenerative capacities, a feature that makes it the ideal tissue for studying the regeneration and role of stem cells. Following an injury, the first response is inflammation that calls the immune system cells to the damaged site. A few days later, the second phase begins in which the stem cells of the epidermis multiply, giving rise to the progenitors, responsible for the formation of new tissue. The third phase, called remodeling, marks the end of the damage response: all the processes activated after the injury cease, and the normal structure of the tissue is restored. The Caspase-8, a protein classically known to be involved in apoptosis, has a key role in reduced in order for the tissue to repair itself. Defects in the regulation of this protein cause serious consequences: in diabetes, for example, the inability to heal from wounds correlates with the increased production of Caspase-8 and, on the other handbiological tissues, a persistent reduction of its expression translates into a chronic inflammatory response with symptoms such as eczema.


Comments




Send Comment

Need a custom
essay?

We will write it for you.
Order now

Free Essay Examples

Free essays:

An ultimate guide about biochemical reactions
Analysis methods of Transport through biological membranes
A Comprehensive Introduction to the Mona Lisa
An ultimate guide about Biomaterials
Big data analysis in evolutionary biology
Brain-Computer Interface systems with EEG signals
Biochemistry of neurotransmitter
Bipolar disorder: Symptoms, causes, diagnosis and treatment
Cellular excitability
Characterization of biological tissues, biomaterials
Characteristics of the byzantine architecture
Commonly Confused Words: Part 2
Dynamic Systems Modeling with Machine Learning
Digital Imaging: What Is It?
Different forms of dance you should know about
Data Science: Fundamental tools for data analysis
Everything you need to know about enzymatic kinetics
Electromagnetic exposure effects on human organs
Effects of Different Environmental Factors on Artworks
Entrepreneur trends to know about
Famous Ballet Forms
Four postulates of natural selection
Famous African American literature authors
Film styles and the types of styles for shooting a film
Importance of online journalism
Importance of 3d Modelling in Architecture
Introduction to Utilitarianism
Identity theft: what to do?
Kinetic models in biology and Related fields
Know about the different forms of traditional African dances
Know about the history of science
Latest technology trends
Mass transport in a biological system
Major themes in ancient Egyptian art
Major healthcare trends
Misconceptions About the Word “Introvert”
Nonlinear Dynamics in Biology & Biomedicine
NLS (Nonlinear System) - Revolutionary system in diagnostic medicine and therapy
Neural networks: what they are and what they are for
Nuclear fusion: What it is and how it works?
Role of Homeostasis in Human Physiology
Role of a digital artist
Role of gender studies
Risk management, meaning, and importance for companies
Systems biology - An understanding the functioning of biological systems
Self-assembly for biological systems
School of American Ballet
Schizophrenia - a rare psychiatric illness | Essay
The impact of the technological innovations in medicine
The Defense mechanisms against infections
Tips for writing a great thesis statement
The Modeling of Biological Systems
Understand the importance of investigative journalism
Urban planning in the US
Understanding the sociology of Race & Ethnicity
Various theoretical perspectives of sociology
Women empowerment in modern generation
What Makes a Good Leader
What is biopolymers?
What is the cytoplasm and its function?
4 Facts about Origin of Mathematics!
5 techniques to create an animation
13 Best colleges for political science in the world
3d Model Of Building
All you need to know about the ACA Code of ethics
Architecture and Democracy: An Introduction
Architecture and Democracy: Democratic Values
Architecture and Democracy: Democratic Procedures
All You Need to Know About a Synthesis Essay
An essential guide to understanding Film Theory
Application of Artificial Intelligence in Cyber Security
Applications of electrical engineering
Augmented reality: what it is, how it works, examples
Advantages And Disadvantages Of Social Networking
All you need to know about Cryptography
Applications of astrophysical science
All you need to know about architecture engineering
Applications of geological engineering
Artificial intelligence and medicine: an increasingly close relationship
An insight into Computational Biology
ACA code of conduct
A Rose for Emily
Applications of Mathematics in daily life
Architecture mistakes to avoid
All you need to know about Toxicology
All you need to know about Holistic Medicine
All you need to know about linguistics
An introduction to Linguistics and its subfields
All you need to know about Anxiety disorder
All you need to know about Drones
A Brief Insight into Political Science
Assumptions related to feminism
All you need to know about Byzantine emperors
All you need to know about labour economics
An insight into xenobots -the first-ever robots
An ultimate guide about Biomaterials
A Comprehensive Introduction to the Mona Lisa
Analysis methods of Transport through biological membranes
An ultimate guide about biochemical reactions
How to Write a Personal Essay
Housing Needs in America
How to Write a Description Essay
How to Create an Excellent Scholarship Essay?
How to write a cause and effect essay
How to Hire the Best Essay Writing Service Provider?
How to Write a College Application Essay?
How to get the most out of your English lectures
How to write Expository Essay
How to succeed in your psychology class?
How to Write an Academic Essay in the Shortest Time?
History of Journalism
How Different Sectors are Using Artificial intelligence (AI)
How to write an informative essay
How to deliver persuasive essays?
How to Give a Convincing Presentation
How to write an essay on leadership?
Historical Art Still Around Today
Humanoid robot: what it is, how it works and price
History of Chemistry
Healthcare Advanced Computer Power: Robotics, Medical Imaging, and More
Healthcare AI: Game Changers for Medical Decision-Making and Remote Patient Monitoring
How to understand different types of English
How to Cope with Chronic Pain
How African American choreographers and dancers have influenced American dance
How mobile robot can do in logistics or in production
How To Become a Successful Entrepreneur
History of the Philosophy of Feminism
How is the climate changing?
How to Track Your Content Marketing ROI
How to Gun control In the USA?
Historical and contemporary role of labour in the modern world
How breast cancers are classified?
How the cells of our body communicate?
How the Lymphatic System Works?
How Digestive System Works
How to complete your capstone projects effectively?
How to write a research project
Healthcare technologies that help patients with better self-management
How to choose the topic of the senior capstone project