Login with Facebook

Bipolar disorder: Symptoms, causes, diagnosis and treatment

People with bipolar disorder continually see their lives switch between euphoria and depression. Bipolarity is the name we give today to manic depression. This mood disorder, which is diagnosed late, affects 1% of the population. Bipolar disorder, formerly called "manic depression" or wrongly bipolar, is a disease that affects mood regulation. The World Health Organization ranks it among the ten most disabling conditions. There are different types of bipolar illness, but it is generally characterized by the alternation of periods of depression and so-called “manic” or hypomanic periods, interspersed with free intervals (where the person is in a normal state).

Symptoms of bipolar disorder

- In the depressive phase, the patient shows all the symptoms of major depression.

- In the manic phase, he is in a euphoric, enthusiastic, and/or irritable state. His sleep needs are reduced. He is in physical, sexual, social hyperactivity. The individual is very confident; he is talkative and believes himself capable of succeeding in everything. When this last phase is less intense, we speak of hypomania.

Manic (or hypomanic) and depressive episodes follow one another in the course of life.

The disease most often begins at the end of adolescence, between 15 and 19 years of age. Some warning signs of bipolar disorder should lead to consultation.

What is the cause of this mood disorder?

This disorder caused by brain dysfunctions is said to have genetic origins. It is not necessarily hereditary, but there are family predispositions.

Painful life events, particularly the shock experienced in childhood, can trigger or worsen the disease in people who are predisposed.

What are the consequences of bipolar disorder?

- In the manic phase: the individual can be led to adopt behaviors dangerous for his physical integrity (speeding driving, hazardous and unprotected sexual relations.), and socially problematic. Also with aggressiveness at work with a risk of job loss; compulsive and reckless spending; risky financial investments; gambling addiction.

- In the depressive phase: we find all the symptoms of depressive suffering with a very marked risk of suicide. One in two patients will make at least one suicide attempt in their lifetime.


Finally, the disease is really trying for loved ones who must endure the phases of mania during which the individual refuses any advice of moderation (risks of over-indebtedness, etc.) Or even proves to be irritable or aggressive; then, the phases of depression are experienced in depression and inability to act on a daily basis.

Bipolar disorder is often associated with an anxiety disorder and sometimes leads to alcohol addiction (which can mask the disease and complicate the diagnosis).

How to recognize this disorder?

While one in two patients will attempt suicide in their lifetime, it is essential that doctors be helped to diagnose this delicate disorder.

Here is the advice of the High Authority for Health:


- You have to think about bipolar disorder in front of a depressive disorder and find out if there is mania that went unnoticed.

- In adolescents, we must be vigilant in the face of withdrawal, dropping out of school, risky behavior, taking psychoactive substances.

- Care should be taken if the patient has had more than three histories of depressive episodes if he has attempted suicide if he has reacted poorly to antidepressant treatment.

- The attending physician should not hesitate to consider hospitalization if he considers the manic episode or the risk of suicide high.

- Support by a psychiatrist for confirmation of the diagnosis is necessary, as is collaborative treatment with the attending physician.

How to diagnose bipolar disorder?

The diagnosis is often made late (after nine years on average) because it takes several months, even several years, before the succession of cycles is noticeable.

It is often an acute manic episode (which requires temporary hospitalization), which allows it to be posed. The diagnosis is more difficult when the hypomanic phases are just signaled by a slight state of euphoria. In this case, the patient may be wrongly perceived as depressed or an alcoholic.

The attending physician who sees the patient only occasionally (and rather in the depressed phase) is not necessarily in a position to observe the variations in mood. The patient himself, when he is in the euphoric phase, does not perceive himself absolutely as such: he feels in great shape!

It is often the entourage that sounds the alarm. Relatives must be particularly attentive to changes in the behavior of an adolescent or a young adult, withdrawal, dropping out of school, risky behavior, etc.).

How to treat bipolar disorder?

The hospitalization is often required in acute manic or depressive phase-in when the risk of suicide seems worrying. The purpose of these hospitalizations is to prevent the patient from being harmed, but also to allow the drugs to show their first effects.


The mood disorders should indeed be regulated by specific drugs, the mood stabilizers, the oldest known (and always very helpful) are the lithium salts. Other psychotropic drugs can be prescribed more punctually in case of manic phase or depressive phase.


Life-long thermoregulatory drugs thymoregulators must be taken for life (which is not always well accepted by patients who tend to stop treatment as soon as they feel better). They have a preventive effect that prevents relapses and, in many cases, this allows patients to return to normal life.

Psycho educational measures that allow patients to control the disease (by avoiding fatigue, by learning to limit disruptive events, etc.) remain essential.

Cognitive-behavioral therapy for bipolar disorder

Numerous studies have shown, in recent years, the effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy combined with pharmacotherapy in the treatment of the bipolar disorder. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy is very effective in increasing compliance. In particular, the work on compliance is based on three key interventions:

1. Constantly develop and strengthen the therapeutic alliance throughout the psychotherapeutic process.

2. Develop problem-solving strategies that help the patient solve practical problems related to the use of drugs.

3. Develop strategies that help the patient to combat with dysfunctional beliefs underlying emotional stress and dysfunctional behaviors.

The main purposes of the treatment are the following:

• Provide information to the patient and their family members about Bipolar Disorder, drug treatment, and difficulties with treatment compliance.

• Early warning signs, teaching preventive coping skills that can reduce the severity and duration of symptoms.

• Recognize the dysfunctional beliefs typical of Bipolar Disorder, particularly with respect to drug therapy in order to improve treatment compliance.

• Promote problem-solving skills, emotional regulation, and adaptive response in order to cope with psycho-social stressors.

• Promote a sense of personal power by improving the quality of life, in particularBipolar disorder, reducing hospitalization and the risk of suicide.


Comments




Send Comment

Need a custom
essay?

We will write it for you.
Order now

Free Essay Examples

Free essays:

All you need to know about the ACA Code of ethics
Architecture and Democracy: An Introduction
Architecture and Democracy: Democratic Values
Architecture and Democracy: Democratic Procedures
All You Need to Know About a Synthesis Essay
An essential guide to understanding Film Theory
Application of Artificial Intelligence in Cyber Security
Applications of electrical engineering
Augmented reality: what it is, how it works, examples
Advantages And Disadvantages Of Social Networking
All you need to know about Cryptography
Applications of astrophysical science
All you need to know about architecture engineering
Applications of geological engineering
Artificial intelligence and medicine: an increasingly close relationship
An insight into Computational Biology
ACA code of conduct
A Rose for Emily
Applications of Mathematics in daily life
Architecture mistakes to avoid
All you need to know about Toxicology
All you need to know about Holistic Medicine
All you need to know about linguistics
An introduction to Linguistics and its subfields
All you need to know about Anxiety disorder
All you need to know about Drones
A Brief Insight into Political Science
Assumptions related to feminism
All you need to know about Byzantine emperors
All you need to know about labour economics
An insight into xenobots -the first-ever robots
An ultimate guide about Biomaterials
Biomedical engineering trends to look out for
Bionic Limbs and Technology: Advancements Improving Patients' Lives
Bipolar disorder: Symptoms, causes, diagnosis and treatment
Biochemistry of neurotransmitter
Brain-Computer Interface systems with EEG signals
Consequences of racial discrimination in urban housing development
Cryptocurrency: Advantages and Disadvantages
Character Archetypes: The Good
Character Archetypes: The Bad
Contemporary art trends
Commonly Confused Words
Commonly Confused Words: Part 2
Characteristics of the byzantine architecture
Data Visualization: What it is and why it matters?
Data Science: Fundamental tools for data analysis
Different forms of dance you should know about
Digital Imaging: What Is It?
Dynamic Systems Modeling with Machine Learning
Eat To Live or Live To Eat
Everything you need to know about WiMAX
Everything you need to know about Data Science
Everything you need to know about Virtual memory
Entrepreneur trends to know about
Effects of Different Environmental Factors on Artworks
Film styles and the types of styles for shooting a film
Famous African American literature authors
How to Write a Personal Essay
Housing Needs in America
How to Write a Description Essay
How to Create an Excellent Scholarship Essay?
How to write a cause and effect essay
How to Hire the Best Essay Writing Service Provider?
How to Write a College Application Essay?
How to get the most out of your English lectures
How to write Expository Essay
How to succeed in your psychology class?
How to Write an Academic Essay in the Shortest Time?
History of Journalism
How Different Sectors are Using Artificial intelligence (AI)
How to write an informative essay
How to deliver persuasive essays?
How to Give a Convincing Presentation
How to write an essay on leadership?
Historical Art Still Around Today
Humanoid robot: what it is, how it works and price
History of Chemistry
Healthcare Advanced Computer Power: Robotics, Medical Imaging, and More
Healthcare AI: Game Changers for Medical Decision-Making and Remote Patient Monitoring
How to understand different types of English
How to Cope with Chronic Pain
How African American choreographers and dancers have influenced American dance
How mobile robot can do in logistics or in production
How To Become a Successful Entrepreneur
History of the Philosophy of Feminism
How is the climate changing?
How to Track Your Content Marketing ROI
How to Gun control In the USA?
Historical and contemporary role of labour in the modern world
Introduction to Urban Studies
Importance of dance in education
InMoov: how to build an open source humanoid robot
Importance of KYC verification to making the Blockchain secure
Importance of Rhythm
Importance of dance student evaluation
I/O control methods -types and explanations
Identity theft: what to do?
Introduction to Utilitarianism
Know about the history of science
Know about the different forms of traditional African dances
Latest dance trends
Latest technology trends
Modern sociology trends you should know about
Modern Art that the Past Would Have Scorned
Modern Art that the Past Would Have Scorned, Part 2
Memory Management in an Operating System
Misconceptions About the Word “Introvert”
Major healthcare trends
Nuclear fusion: What it is and how it works?
Neural networks: what they are and what they are for
Philosophy of Art: Written Forms as Art
Robotic Integration into Our Lives: Now and the Future
Role of a neuroscientist
Risk management, meaning, and importance for companies
Role of gender studies
Role of a digital artist
Should You Start a Career Or Enter University At 18?
Smoking Should Be Banned
Should You Go Digital?
Standard finance terms to know about
Social robots
Schizophrenia - a rare psychiatric illness | Essay
The Looming Energy Crisis in America
Top benefits of performance-based engineering
The More Languages You Know, The More Times You Are a Man
Things to consider while writing an Argumentative Essay
Top Ways to Improve Your Academic Writing Skills
Tips to Excel in Creative Writing
The origins of films in the early 19th century
Top career options in Architecture
The Elevator Pitch
Top finance trends 2020
The basic Structure and functionality of robots
The Way to Success
The election system of the President in the United States of America
Two-party System in United States of America
Top trends in urban design
The history and theory of African American filmmaking
Top benefits of creative writing
Tinnitus Guide: Common Symptoms and Treatment Options
The language of dance
The digital image processing management
Top famous politicians of the World
Top methods of political science!
The history of the feminist movement
The blood flow in cardiovascular system - Biofluid Mechanics
Understanding the sociology of Race & Ethnicity
Urban planning in the US
Virtual reality, what it is and how it works
Various theoretical perspectives of sociology
What is a Definition Essay?
What are diagnostic essays?
What is the relation between art structural engineering?
What is a Narrative Essay
What are robotics and intelligence systems?
What are the benefits of studying health sciences?
What is artificial intelligence and why it matters?
What is comparative Literature?
Why study neuroscience
What is Wi-Fi and how does it works
What is French history famous for?
What are Humanistic Studies?
What is covered in Biophysics?
What is modern journalism?
What is Virtualization? Benefits & Applications
What are modern public relations?
What is plasma physics?
What is teacher preparation?
What is rapid prototyping for 3D printing?
What is contemporary European Politics?
Why should you learn American Ballet?
What is engineering physics?
What is the purpose of African American Literature?
Ways to learn the Rhythm
What is digital art used for?
What are Enzymes and how do they work
Who is the father of political science?
Why Study Political Science - Job?
What is the Philosophy of Feminism?
What is a quantum computer?
Ways B2B Startups Streamline Their Conversion Strategies
Why do biomedical signals need processing?
What are the long term effects of climate change?
Why study labour relations
What is Holoprosencephaly?
4 Facts about Origin of Mathematics!
5 techniques to create an animation
13 Best colleges for political science in the world