Login with Facebook

Bioconjugates for the Drugs Delivery

The result of research in the field of drug delivery has led to the development of numerous colloidal formulations capable of optimizing the delivery of easily degradable or poorly soluble drugs. Due to their limited ability to overcome biological barriers, they are unable to reach unaltered the site of action. More recently, a new class of colloidal drug delivery systems has been designed for active drug targeting. These systems are able to recognize specific cellular and subcellular targets and accumulate in the district of action where the drug is released.

 The progress of scientific research in the nanotechnology sector has led in the last fifty years to the rapid development of innovative therapeutic systems which on the one hand allow to optimize the use and performance of drugs and on the other hand to open new perspectives for the treatment of pathologies until today difficult to treat. Through the physical or chemical combination of materials with peculiar physical, biological, and biopharmaceutical characteristics, various more or less complex and sophisticated colloidal therapeutic systems have been developed. For instance, soluble polymer systems, liposomes, micelles, and lipidic or organic polymeric nanoparticles, these systems allow overcoming problems of use of drugs that have inadequate physical and biopharmaceutical characteristics, thus improving their therapeutic profile. 

Direct agents

Over the years, numerous directed agents have been used, such as antibodies, antibody fragments, other proteins and peptides, oligonucleotides. For example, they are aptamers, oligosaccharides, and simple sugars, and small synthetic and natural organic molecules such as metabolites and vitamins. They used in the preparation of bioconjugates for active drug delivery.


Immunoconjugates and well-established antibody, hybridoma, and phage-display engineering technologies allow today to obtain monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) with high specificity and binding affinity towards selected antigens. In a short time, numerous Moab has entered therapy as such, and a large number of these protein molecules are in an advanced stage of clinical studies for the treatment of numerous pathologies. Trastuzumab (Herceptin) or rituximab, for example, have intrinsic cytotoxicity in that they interfere with molecules that stimulate cell proliferation. In combination with anticancer drugs represents a strategy to obtain a synergy between the selective and cytotoxic action of the antibody and chemotherapy drugs. Immune bioconjugates represent one of the most interesting and innovative classes of new drugs for the treatment of a wide variety of pathologies, in particular for the treatment of various tumor forms. Immunoconjugation technology allows us to significantly improve the therapeutic profile of anticancer drugs. In particular, very powerful drugs with a low therapeutic index, such as auristatin, and calicHeamicine, are excellent agents for the production of immune bioconjugates. The class of bioconjugated Immuno belongs to simple immunoconjugates in which the therapeutic agent is / or diagnostic is directly linked to the antibody, as in the case of immunoradionuclides, immune drugs, immunotoxins, immunoderivatives and more complex conjugated conjugates in which the antibody is linked to colloidal transporters. The antigen-antibody recognition is, in some cases, followed by the internalization of the bioconjugate through a clathrine dependent process. At internalization rate depends on the structure of the bioconjugate, but some studies have of.


Radioimmunoconjugates are obtained by complexing antibodies with high-energy radiation-emitting radionuclides such as beta emitters, 131iodine, and yttrium, or alpha emitters, 21bismuth and 211astatin. These bioconjugates are mainly used for hematopoietic diseases, such as lymphoma or acute myeloid leukemia, while they have proved to be not very effective in the treatment of solid tumors. 


Immunotoxins are bioconjugates of internalizing antibodies with toxins of bacterial, fungal, and vegetable origin, which inactivate protein synthesis or transduction signals. , and the most used toxins are ricin, diphtheria toxin, or pseudomonas exotoxin. Ontak (Denileukin diftitox ) is a fusion protein similar to an immunotoxin obtained by the fusion of Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and diphtheria toxin and has been approved for clinical use although it has not shown high efficacy, while the side effects, such as edema, hypotension, hypoalbuminemia, and elevated liver transaminases are quite important.


immunoconjugates antibody drugs, and immunotoxins where the diagnostic and/or therapeutic agent is directly conjugated to the antibody by chemical or enzymatic way or by fusion. immunoliposomes are vesicular systems of the reservoir type which contain a high quantity of molecules of the drug (tens of thousands) and to whose surface they are tied directly or through a polymeric linker or through post-insertion MoAb antibody fragments. In addition to the ability to transport high quantities of the drug to the site of action, immuoliposomes have high avidity for the target and cellular uptake due to the presence on the surface of numerous directional molecules. On the other hand, the large dimensions (usually over 100 nm) prevent passive localization in the tumor tissue while facilitating the elimination through the endothelial reticulum system. The latter problem has been partially solved with the preparation of stealth liposomes, i.e., liposomes coated with PEG like other immunoconjugates, immunoliposomes can be internalized and release the drug into the endosome or release the drug into the extracellular matrix.

Polymer systems

The polymers demonstrated how with these materials, it was possible to obtain systems capable of release drugs in a spatially and temporally controlled way or in specific sites of the organism with predetermined drug release kinetics. Polymer bioconjugates today represent one of the most varied and fascinating classes of pharmaceutical development, with broad development prospects for obtaining innovative systems for the active and selective delivery of drugs. Polymeric bioconjugates allow you to combine several units of drugs into a single macromolecule and combine drugs with different activities. Furthermore, polymeric bioconjugates allow improving the biopharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic profile of drugs, overcoming problems of solubility and stability of drugs, to favor the localization of drugs through passive mechanisms in solid tumors. 


The technology of bioconjugation allows today to obtain new complex multifunctional supramolecular systems for directing active medication. These bioconjugates are particularly used to convey drugs to tissues and organs that are difficult to reach by drugs, such as the central nervous system, and for the delivery of molecules with a low index therapy, which can lead to high systemic toxicity. However, although the use of bioconjugates for the active direction of drugs, there are clear advantages compared to traditional pharmaceutical forms, two to the structural complexity of the development of efficient products. It requires careful and complex design and characterization. ThereforeBioconjugates, the technological challenge that the pharmaceutical industry has called to collect in order to propose innovative therapeutic systems is the development of products that are not only effective but also simple and well-characterized easily obtainable at the industrial level with low costs.

Author: Vicki Lezama

Need a custom

We will write it for you.
Order now

Free Essay Examples

Free essays:

All you need to know about Neuroendocrinology
All you need to know about Big data management
All you need to know about digital special effects
All you need to know Technical Writing?
Basics the Game Theory in Cryptoeconomics
Business innovation ideas for making money
Biosensors for cancer diagnosis
Business Analysis: Pricing strategies and Demand Curve
Cognitive Computing- How does Cognitive Computing work?
Consciousness: characteristics and peculiarities
Conservation Economics
Cybersecurity in business: challenges, risks, and practices
Demographic trends and how they affect Economic Growth
Dance as an art form and entertainment
Discrimination Economics
Determinants of Wages
Everything you need to know about short-term memory
Economic and Policy Impacts of Demographics
Ethics: an essay on the understanding of evil
Emotions: what are they? Theories explained
Factors of Demographic Data Collection
Factors Affecting Purchasing Behavior
Financial Statement Analysis
Factors Influencing Interest and Exchange Rates
Government's Intervention in The Labor Market
Guide on the Pathways of the nervous system
Game theory in microeconomics
Globalization: definition, causes, social impact and risks
How Relativism Promotes Pluralism and Tolerance
How to use the audience’s feedback to write a news report
History of silent cinema
How news report can be strengthened through multimedia
Introduction to Population Problems
Imperfect Information and Asymmetric Information
Imperfect Information in Insurance
Introduction to Labor Markets
Journalism: What is News?
Journalism: Broadcast media and Television Presenters
Journalism: Sources of News
Journalism and Law
Key Determinants of National Income
Key Factors That Affect Pricing Decisions
Kinetic models in biology and Related fields
Know about the different forms of traditional African dances
Latest technology trends
Latest dance trends
Magnetoencephalography (MEG)
Microeconomic Analysis to the Demand for Labor
Neuromuscular disorders
National Economies, Fluctuation, and Responses to Fluctuations
Neurotransmitters: what they are and different types
Nanomedicines to target tumors
Objections to utilitarianism
Organizational motivation and its effects
Overcoming Hiring Challenges for Nonprofit Organization
Population Demographics
Recurrent neural networks (RNN) for speech detection
Russian School of Mathematics
Research and Development
Risk Sharing in Insurance and Asset Markets
Stochastic optimization methods in deep learning?
Structure of the nervous system
Structure of a Corporation
Schizoaffective disorder: how to live better with it
The climate change denial
The techniques of basic cinematography
The Endosymbiotic Theory
The Role of Internal Audit in Corporate Risk Management
Utilitarianism Vs. Kantianism
Understanding Auctions and Auction Theory: Part 2
Various theoretical perspectives of sociology
Virtual reality, what it is and how it works
What are the linear models in machine learning?
What is Convolutional Neural Network
4 Facts about Origin of Mathematics!
5 techniques to create an animation
10 emerging technologies according to World Economic Forum
10 strategies to maximize corporate profits
3d Model Of Building
6 Medical Technologies that revolutionized the healthcare in 2020
All you need to know about the ACA Code of ethics
Architecture and Democracy: An Introduction
Architecture and Democracy: Democratic Values
Architecture and Democracy: Democratic Procedures
All You Need to Know About a Synthesis Essay
An essential guide to understanding Film Theory
Application of Artificial Intelligence in Cyber Security
Applications of electrical engineering
Augmented reality: what it is, how it works, examples
Advantages And Disadvantages Of Social Networking
All you need to know about Cryptography
Applications of astrophysical science
All you need to know about architecture engineering
Applications of geological engineering
Artificial intelligence and medicine: an increasingly close relationship
An insight into Computational Biology
ACA code of conduct
A Rose for Emily
Applications of Mathematics in daily life
Architecture mistakes to avoid
All you need to know about Toxicology
All you need to know about Holistic Medicine
All you need to know about linguistics
An introduction to Linguistics and its subfields
All you need to know about Anxiety disorder
All you need to know about Drones
A Brief Insight into Political Science
Assumptions related to feminism
All you need to know about Byzantine emperors
All you need to know about labour economics
An insight into xenobots -the first-ever robots
An ultimate guide about Biomaterials
A Comprehensive Introduction to the Mona Lisa
Analysis methods of Transport through biological membranes
An ultimate guide about biochemical reactions
Analysis of brain signals
Artificial Gene Synthesis
Application to synthetic biology of CAD methods
All you need to know about metabolic pathways
Applications of BIOMEMS
All you need to know about the epidemiology
Asian vs. western leadership styles
All you need to know about Smart prosthesis
Analysis of Economy: Output of Goods and Services (GNP), and GDP on Economic success
A Guide to Pricing Strategies
An Overview Of Economic Studies
Analysis of Fiscal and Monetary Policies
Analysis of Business Cycles
Analysis of Consumption and Investment
A Look into Regression Analysis
Analysis of Household's Consumption and Savings Behavior
All you need to know about Capital Budgeting
All you need to know about risk management
Art looted in wartime.
Appropriate use of Data in Economics
All you need to know about reaction kinetics?
A historical overview of Financial Crises
All you need to know about management discipline?
An insight into the error-correction models
All you need to know about Data visualization
All you need to know about Work-family balance
All you need to know Technical Writing?
All you need to know about digital special effects
All you need to know about Big data management
All you need to know about Neuroendocrinology
How to Write a Personal Essay
Housing Needs in America
How to Write a Description Essay
How to Create an Excellent Scholarship Essay?
How to write a cause and effect essay
How to Hire the Best Essay Writing Service Provider?
How to Write a College Application Essay?
How to get the most out of your English lectures
How to write Expository Essay
How to succeed in your psychology class?
How to Write an Academic Essay in the Shortest Time?
History of Journalism
How Different Sectors are Using Artificial intelligence (AI)
How to write an informative essay
How to deliver persuasive essays?
How to Give a Convincing Presentation
How to write an essay on leadership?
Historical Art Still Around Today
Humanoid robot: what it is, how it works and price
History of Chemistry
Healthcare Advanced Computer Power: Robotics, Medical Imaging, and More
Healthcare AI: Game Changers for Medical Decision-Making and Remote Patient Monitoring
How to understand different types of English
How to Cope with Chronic Pain
How African American choreographers and dancers have influenced American dance
How mobile robot can do in logistics or in production
How To Become a Successful Entrepreneur
History of the Philosophy of Feminism
How is the climate changing?
How to Track Your Content Marketing ROI
How to Gun control In the USA?
Historical and contemporary role of labour in the modern world
How breast cancers are classified?
How the cells of our body communicate?
How the Lymphatic System Works?
How Digestive System Works
How to complete your capstone projects effectively?
How to write a research project
Healthcare technologies that help patients with better self-management
How to choose the topic of the senior capstone project
How to make your business survive at economic crisis
How can immigrants blend in the American society?
How does the economics of war affect society?
Hate speech on social media.
How to Build an Economic Model
How to start a healthcare startup?
How can financial illiteracy harm you?
How cancer is developed - Cancer biology
How to define the Enterprise Value
How to conduct economic research?
How women can manage sexual harassment
How to use quotes in your news reports?
How news report can be strengthened through multimedia
History of silent cinema
How to use the audience’s feedback to write a news report
How Relativism Promotes Pluralism and Tolerance
Introduction to Urban Studies
Importance of dance in education
InMoov: how to build an open source humanoid robot
Importance of KYC verification to making the Blockchain secure
Importance of Rhythm
Importance of dance student evaluation
I/O control methods -types and explanations
Identity theft: what to do?
Introduction to Utilitarianism
Importance of 3d Modelling in Architecture
Importance of online journalism
Image processing in medical diagnosis
Introduction to USA Politics
Introduction to Comparative Politics
International Relations as a Major in Political Science
Importance of modern trade policy
Introduction to Journalism
Introduction to Writing a TV Script
Introduction of Microfabrication techniques
Introduction to Microeconomics
Interaction of Consumer and Firm Choices in Markets
Importance of corporate sustainability
Issues in International Monetary Macroeconomics
Introduction to Statistics and Data for Economics
Introduction to Data and Probability for Economics
Introduction to the Game Theory
Introduction to Econometrics
Introduction to Economic Information
Introduction to Market Equilibrium
Introduction to Economic Models and Application
Introduction to Empirical Research
Introduction to Econometric Data
Importance of Critical Thinking, Principles, and Goals
Introduction to Identification and Causal inferences
Introduction to Econometric Application
Intermediaries and Government in Financial Crisis
Importance and seven principles of quality management
Illiteracy in the USA
Introduction to Economics of Law
Introduction to Coase Theorem
Introduction to Social Choice and Incarceration
Intellectual Property and Product Liability
Investment in Human Capital
Introduction to Labor Markets
Imperfect Information in Insurance
Imperfect Information and Asymmetric Information
Introduction to Population Problems
The Looming Energy Crisis in America
Top benefits of performance-based engineering
The More Languages You Know, The More Times You Are a Man
Things to consider while writing an Argumentative Essay
Top Ways to Improve Your Academic Writing Skills
Tips to Excel in Creative Writing
The origins of films in the early 19th century
Top career options in Architecture
The Elevator Pitch
Top finance trends 2020
The basic Structure and functionality of robots
The Way to Success
The election system of the President in the United States of America
Two-party System in United States of America
Top trends in urban design
The history and theory of African American filmmaking
Top benefits of creative writing
Tinnitus Guide: Common Symptoms and Treatment Options
The language of dance
The digital image processing management
Top famous politicians of the World
Top methods of political science!
The history of the feminist movement
The blood flow in cardiovascular system - Biofluid Mechanics
The best of Leonardo Da Vinci
The Structure and Function of Macromolecules
The structure of cell: a research on the bricks of the human body!
Tissue and organ construction: Adhesion and recognition between cells
The kinetics of the transformation processes
The Modeling of Biological Systems
Tips for writing a great thesis statement
The Defense mechanisms against infections
The impact of the technological innovations in medicine
Top journalism trends to know about
The relation between mass media & politics
Theranostics: Diagnosis and Care through Nanoparticles
The practical Applications of X-rays
The applications of Ultrasound in medicine
Transfer mechanisms of genetic information in Bacteria
The regulation of cellular metabolism in the diagnosis
The Principles of MRI Contrast agents
The technical basis of optical coherence imaging
The New Media: Emerging Trends
The Structure of Interest Rates and the Yield Curve
Technological perspectives and reflections of neural engineering
Types of bioreactors and their applications
The Role of Government Policy in Improving Economic Outcomes
Types of corporate responsibility
The Role of IMF in International Monetary Macroeconomics
Tools for investment decision making
The concept of Organizational Culture and its applications
The Conduct of Monetary and Fiscal Policy
The Basics of Financial Accelerator Models
Tips for labeling medical devices- Medical Entrepreneurship
The different medical imaging techniques
The Economics of Uncertainty – Introduction
Theories of Public Policy
The Game Theory in Social Media
The political theory of Thomas Hobbes
The Use of Law on Economics and Vice Versa
The Role of Internal Audit in Corporate Risk Management
The Endosymbiotic Theory
The techniques of basic cinematography
The climate change denial
What is a Definition Essay?
What are diagnostic essays?
What is the relation between art structural engineering?
What is a Narrative Essay
What are robotics and intelligence systems?
What are the benefits of studying health sciences?
What is artificial intelligence and why it matters?
What is comparative Literature?
Why study neuroscience
What is Wi-Fi and how does it works
What is French history famous for?
What are Humanistic Studies?
What is covered in Biophysics?
What is modern journalism?
What is Virtualization? Benefits & Applications
What are modern public relations?
What is plasma physics?
What is teacher preparation?
What is rapid prototyping for 3D printing?
What is contemporary European Politics?
Why should you learn American Ballet?
What is engineering physics?
What is the purpose of African American Literature?
Ways to learn the Rhythm
What is digital art used for?
What are Enzymes and how do they work
Who is the father of political science?
Why Study Political Science - Job?
What is the Philosophy of Feminism?
What is a quantum computer?
Ways B2B Startups Streamline Their Conversion Strategies
Why do biomedical signals need processing?
What are the long term effects of climate change?
Why study labour relations
What is Holoprosencephaly?
What is antisocial disorder?
What are the important principles of evolution?
What is the cytoplasm and its function?
What is biopolymers?
What Makes a Good Leader
Women empowerment in modern generation
What is the history of political thought?
What is Gene recombination
What is synthetic biology
What is business cost analysis?
What is Inflation
What are the consequences of unemployment?
What is lithotripsy and its types?
What is transition elastography?
What is the purpose of deep brain stimulation?
What is a Brain-Computer Interface (BCI)
What is neuroethics?
What is Market and Supply and Demand
What is optogenetics?
What are the techniques to record brain activity?
What happens if the interest rate increases?
What is immunotherapy?
What is the economic role of the financial market?
What are the factors behind illegal immigration?
What is the lymphocyte activation?
What is financial market and its types?
What is the structure of financial markets?
What are the methods of measuring business performance?
What is the Credit market?
What is business ethics and code of ethics
What are the Causes of financial instability?
What is MBA with Concentrations
What is regenerative medicine?
What is Population ecology?
What is Microfinance: evolution, and practices?
What is biotechnology and its applications?
What are Workplace diversity and its benefits?
What is the difference between a leader and a manager?
What Is Branding and best branding Business strategies?
Why are microelectronics important?
What are biologic drugs.
What is the Foreign Exchange market?
What is the role of scientific research in times of crisis?
What are the risks of international trade?
What is financial management?
What is gene therapy?
What is education economics?
What is regression analysis, and why should you use it?
What Is Technology Marketing And How Should It Work?
What is Management Accounting
What are the methods of valuation of companies?
What is Immune System and Immunotherapy?
What is big data analytics?
What is the 7 layers of OSI model?
What is Neuroplasticity?
What are Sculpture art and its types?
What are the different genres of films?
What is Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)?
What is TES-Transcranial electrical stimulation?
What is Relativism?
What is Vaccine skepticism, and what to do about it?
What happens in the brain when learning?
What is the deep neural network?
What is Convolutional Neural Network
What are the linear models in machine learning?