The chemical reaction to be carried out, the presence of one or more substances is necessary, so that it decomposes or combines and thus forms the new substance — for example, respiration, metabolism, the formation of oxides, hydroxides, acids, etc.
Metabolism is understood as the various chemical change processes of matter carried out by living beings, in order to obtain energy in the process. Biochemical and physicochemical processes occur within cells and/or organisms and are the basis for the perpetuation of life i.e. growth, reproduction, and response to external stimuli. All living things have a metabolism. This can be different depending on the nutritional needs of each species, or it can be common even to beings as diverse as a bacterium and an elephant.
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In any case, depending on the metabolic functioning of each living being, some substances will be nutritious and others toxic or lethal. Every metabolism is composed of two distinct but conjugated processes, which are called catabolism and anabolism:
Anabolism is the set of metabolism processes that finally have the synthesis of cellular components from low molecular mass precursors, one so you also receive the Name of biosynthesis. It is one of the two parts in which the metabolism is usually divided. Although anabolism and catabolism are two opposite processes, the two work together and harmoniously and constitute a difficult unit to separate.
It consists of the synthesis of more complex organic molecules (biomolecules) from other simpler ones, organic or inorganic, with energy requirement (endergonic reactions) and reducing power, unlike catabolism. Anabolic processes are metabolic processes of construction, in which large molecules are obtained from smaller ones. In these processes, energy is consumed. Living things use these reactions to form, for example, proteins from amino acids. Through the anabolic processes, the molecules necessary to form new cells are created.
Catabolism is the part of the metabolic process that consists of the degradation of organic nutrients, transforming them into simple final products, in order to extract chemical energy from them and convert it into a Useful form for the cell. The energy released by catabolic reactions is used in the synthesis of ATP.
Catabolism is the degradation phase of metabolism in which more or less complex organic molecules are transformed into other simpler organic or inorganic molecules. As a result of this degradation, energy that is partly conserved in the form of ATP is released, from which in turn it can be used for anabolism, for movement, for heat production, for active transport, etc.
Catabolism is similar in autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms and consists of chemical, enzymatic transformations, which are mostly oxidation and reduction reactions, in which some compounds oxidize at the expense of others that are reduced. Enzymes from the dehydrogenase group are mainly involved in these reactions, using NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) as coenzymes and FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide). The oxidation of the immediate principles that is carried out in the catabolism reactions is a loss of electrons that, in many cases, are associated with the loss of protons.
The synthesis of proteins is, without a doubt, one of the most important biological processes that take place in the human organism and, in general, in that of all the animal species that populate the earth. In a nutshell, this is the mechanism by which the body creates all the specific proteins it needs from those obtained through diet and that are present, to a greater or lesser extent, in almost all foods. It plays a key role in both deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). Previously, during the process of digestion, the body is responsible for breaking the peptide bonds that bind the amino acids that make up a protein to later use them for the purpose of creating their own structures.
Cellular functioning is based primarily on its proteins. In this regard, it must be said that the function of each protein is defined according to its molecular structure, its location within the cell to which it belongs, and its participation in a certain biological process. Protein functions are also defined by their exact composition and structure, which is encrypted within the DNA. The process known as protein synthesis comes to stabilize the imbalance caused by the loss of cellular proteins due to the degradation they suffer when they intervene in the function for which they are intended.
The purpose of protein synthesis is to allow the body to form those macromolecules it needs to carry out its functions. And it is that the human body is not able to use the proteins ingested by feeding directly, but it needs to break its peptide bonds and, from the amino acids they contain, create new structures.
In general, we can say that the purpose of protein synthesis is to create the following types of Proteins:
Enzymes are proteins whose main function is to act as catalysts, that is, accelerators of the biochemical reactions that occur in the body. Without a doubt, the best-known enzymes of all are those that are involved in the process of digestion of food. In this sense, we can highlight the amylase, which is present in the saliva of all mammals and whose function is to break down the starch contained in sugars. Similarly, pepsin and trypsin break down large.
Hormones are proteins with the ability to transmit signals from one place to another in the body. For example, insulin is an extracellular protein whose purpose is to regulate glucose metabolism and stabilize blood sugar levels.
They are the proteins that make it possible for muscle movement to occur. Actin and myosin are the best known.
They tend to have a filamentous appearance, and their function is to provide support and support. For example, keratin is a macromolecule that strengthens the protective covering of hair and nails. Similarly, collagen and elastin are essential parts of connective tissue, that is, used by the body to build tendons and ligaments in the joints.
They are responsible for acting as vehicles in a multitude of cellular processes by carrying certain fundamental ions, small molecules, and even other protein macromolecules of more size.
They are proteins that develop their activity within the immune or defense system of the organism. In fact, its main function is to destroy the external microorganisms that enter the body and can cause some kind of damage or harm to health. As a general rule, antibodies are anchored in the membranes of immune response cells or segregated from the extracellular matrix.
Carbohydrates are essential macronutrients for life development and health maintenance. They are the main molecules that provide energy to the body, and in this lies the importance of its consumption. To understand a little more about these carbohydrates, it is important to know how they are synthesized and how your metabolism is.