Login with Facebook

All you need to know about Cryptography

Cryptography is a fundamental tool in the fight against cybercrime. 

What is encryption, and what does it mean? The etymology helps to understand: Kryptós (hidden) and graphía (writing) are the two Greek words that make up the term cryptography. The latter is nothing but a system designed to make a message unreadable for those who do not have the solution to decode it. Which cryptography system is used in computer science? Here’s all you need you to know about cryptography. Read on!

The meaning of cryptography

Today communication - of any kind - has acquired an increasingly central role in the life of each of us; in the internet age, billions of information (even sensitive) is circulating on the network. That's why it has become even more necessary to develop sophisticated systems capable of guaranteeing a high level of privacy of some of these data.

Therefore, computer coding, as we know it today, is a continually evolving subject. And precisely because of its continuous evolution, experts never advise against relying on the latest cryptographic algorithm released: paradoxically. It is guaranteed by systems that are already known and publicly tested (a feature that obviously cannot be guaranteed in the case of newer algorithms).

What is a cryptographic system, and how does it work?

Cryptography can be defined as a system that through the use of a mathematical algorithm, acts on a sequence of characters, transforming it. This transformation is based on the value of a secret key, i.e., the parameter of the encryption/decryption algorithm. Precisely the secrecy of this key represents the security key of every cryptographic system.

Two types of encryption

Based on the kind of key used, this computer cryptography system can be divided into two types: symmetric and asymmetric encryption. When a single key is present, we can say it as symmetric key or secret key cryptography (the sender's and recipient's keys are the same). When instead there are two distinct encryption keys, we can say it as asymmetric or public-key cryptography (the encryption key is public, while the decryption key is private).

Symmetric cryptography: some examples

The symmetric cryptography, therefore, foresees the use of a single key both to hide the message and to unlock it and is relatively fast and simple to implement compared to other types of encryption (such as the asymmetric one).

The most common algorithm used today in symmetric key cryptography is called Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). The two Belgian cryptographers, Joan Daemen and Vincent Rijmen developed the Advanced Encryption Standard at the request of the National Institute of Standards and Technology in the late 90s. It became a public standard at the end of 2001.

AES is based on various operations performed on 16-byte data blocks, repeated several times, called rounds, and consists of three 128-bit block ciphers (precisely divided into 4 × 4 8-bit sub-blocks).

In 2003 the US National Security Agency approved the 128-bit AES to protect all government information classified as secret and AES at 192 and 256 bits for so-called top-secret documents. The main disadvantage of symmetric key cryptography is it involved must exchange the key This need to distribute and manage a large number of keys in a secure manner, for most cryptographic services implies the need to make use of other types of encryption algorithms.

Asymmetric cryptographic algorithms

Asymmetric algorithms use two interdependent keys, one to encrypt the data, and the other to decode them i.e. one private and one public. If one key is used for the encryption operation, the other must be used for decryption and vice versa. The private key is known only by the owner; it must be kept secret and must not be shared with anyone else, while all correspondents share the public one.

Being aware of the public key does not allow us to trace the private key in any way. RSA is much slower than symmetric encryption, data is generally encrypted with a symmetric algorithm, and then the relatively short symmetric key is encrypted using RSA. It allows you to securely send other parties the key needed to decode the data, along with symmetrically encrypted data.

Data encryption, hash algorithm, and verification of message integrity

The cryptographic hash function transforms a certain amount of data, such as a file or a message of variable length, in a short fixed string (called hash value or message digest. This data encryption system is mainly used to verify the integrity of a message or to check that the data in question has not changed.

In fact, any accidental or intentional changes to the data will change the value of the hash. A good hash is unidirectional and must, therefore, be extremely difficult to invert (thus not allowing going back to the original value). MD5 and SHA-1 have long been the most widely used hash algorithms, but are now considered weak and are replaced by SHA-2 (which includes SHA-224, SHA-256, SHA-384 or SHA-512).

They are algorithmically similar to SHA-1, and so, according to experts, a new hash standard, SHA-3, will be selected in the coming years.

Lattice-based and quantum cryptography

The encryption on lattices based (latex-based) uses two-dimensional algebraic constructs known, precisely as "lattices," resistant to quantum computation schemes.

The lattice-based primitives have already been inserted correctly in cryptographic protocols such as TLS and Internet Key Exchange, and potentially, all the most widespread security protocols can be made secure by replacing algorithms vulnerable to those of this nature.

Lattice-based encryption is also the basis for another encryption technology called Fully Homomorphic Encryption or FHE. It can allow you to perform file calculations without having to decrypt them by operating two encrypted data we obtain an encrypted result. It once deciphered, is equal to the effect that would be obtained by performing the same process on the two unencrypted data.

The quantum cryptography is based on an approach that uses properties of quantum mechanics when the key is exchanged so that it cannot be intercepted without the sender and receiver noticing. In fact, we talk about the quantum distribution of keysCryptography, which is a transmission that can boast a condition of secrecy that is perfect from a mathematical point of view.


Send Comment

Need a custom

We will write it for you.
Order now

Free Essay Examples

Free essays:

All you need to know about the ACA Code of ethics
Architecture and Democracy: An Introduction
Architecture and Democracy: Democratic Values
Architecture and Democracy: Democratic Procedures
All You Need to Know About a Synthesis Essay
An essential guide to understanding Film Theory
Application of Artificial Intelligence in Cyber Security
Applications of electrical engineering
Augmented reality: what it is, how it works, examples
Advantages And Disadvantages Of Social Networking
All you need to know about Cryptography
Applications of astrophysical science
All you need to know about architecture engineering
Applications of geological engineering
Artificial intelligence and medicine: an increasingly close relationship
An insight into Computational Biology
ACA code of conduct
A Rose for Emily
Applications of Mathematics in daily life
Architecture mistakes to avoid
All you need to know about Toxicology
All you need to know about Holistic Medicine
All you need to know about linguistics
An introduction to Linguistics and its subfields
All you need to know about Anxiety disorder
All you need to know about Drones
A Brief Insight into Political Science
Assumptions related to feminism
All you need to know about Byzantine emperors
All you need to know about labour economics
An insight into xenobots -the first-ever robots
Biomedical engineering trends to look out for
Bionic Limbs and Technology: Advancements Improving Patients' Lives
Bipolar disorder: Symptoms, causes, diagnosis and treatment
Biochemistry of neurotransmitter
Brain-Computer Interface systems with EEG signals
Consequences of racial discrimination in urban housing development
Cryptocurrency: Advantages and Disadvantages
Character Archetypes: The Good
Character Archetypes: The Bad
Contemporary art trends
Commonly Confused Words
Commonly Confused Words: Part 2
Characteristics of the byzantine architecture
Data Visualization: What it is and why it matters?
Data Science: Fundamental tools for data analysis
Different forms of dance you should know about
Digital Imaging: What Is It?
Dynamic Systems Modeling with Machine Learning
Eat To Live or Live To Eat
Everything you need to know about WiMAX
Everything you need to know about Data Science
Everything you need to know about Virtual memory
Entrepreneur trends to know about
Effects of Different Environmental Factors on Artworks
Film styles and the types of styles for shooting a film
Famous African American literature authors
How to Write a Personal Essay
Housing Needs in America
How to Write a Description Essay
How to Create an Excellent Scholarship Essay?
How to write a cause and effect essay
How to Hire the Best Essay Writing Service Provider?
How to Write a College Application Essay?
How to get the most out of your English lectures
How to write Expository Essay
How to succeed in your psychology class?
How to Write an Academic Essay in the Shortest Time?
History of Journalism
How Different Sectors are Using Artificial intelligence (AI)
How to write an informative essay
How to deliver persuasive essays?
How to Give a Convincing Presentation
How to write an essay on leadership?
Historical Art Still Around Today
Humanoid robot: what it is, how it works and price
History of Chemistry
Healthcare Advanced Computer Power: Robotics, Medical Imaging, and More
Healthcare AI: Game Changers for Medical Decision-Making and Remote Patient Monitoring
How to understand different types of English
How to Cope with Chronic Pain
How African American choreographers and dancers have influenced American dance
How mobile robot can do in logistics or in production
How To Become a Successful Entrepreneur
History of the Philosophy of Feminism
How is the climate changing?
How to Track Your Content Marketing ROI
How to Gun control In the USA?
Historical and contemporary role of labour in the modern world
Introduction to Urban Studies
Importance of dance in education
InMoov: how to build an open source humanoid robot
Importance of KYC verification to making the Blockchain secure
Importance of Rhythm
Importance of dance student evaluation
I/O control methods -types and explanations
Identity theft: what to do?
Know about the history of science
Know about the different forms of traditional African dances
Latest dance trends
Latest technology trends
Modern sociology trends you should know about
Modern Art that the Past Would Have Scorned
Modern Art that the Past Would Have Scorned, Part 2
Memory Management in an Operating System
Misconceptions About the Word “Introvert”
Major healthcare trends
Nuclear fusion: What it is and how it works?
Neural networks: what they are and what they are for
Philosophy of Art: Written Forms as Art
Robotic Integration into Our Lives: Now and the Future
Role of a neuroscientist
Risk management, meaning, and importance for companies
Role of gender studies
Role of a digital artist
Should You Start a Career Or Enter University At 18?
Smoking Should Be Banned
Should You Go Digital?
Standard finance terms to know about
Social robots
Schizophrenia - a rare psychiatric illness | Essay
The Looming Energy Crisis in America
Top benefits of performance-based engineering
The More Languages You Know, The More Times You Are a Man
Things to consider while writing an Argumentative Essay
Top Ways to Improve Your Academic Writing Skills
Tips to Excel in Creative Writing
The origins of films in the early 19th century
Top career options in Architecture
The Elevator Pitch
Top finance trends 2020
The basic Structure and functionality of robots
The Way to Success
The election system of the President in the United States of America
Two-party System in United States of America
Top trends in urban design
The history and theory of African American filmmaking
Top benefits of creative writing
Tinnitus Guide: Common Symptoms and Treatment Options
The language of dance
The digital image processing management
Top famous politicians of the World
Top methods of political science!
The history of the feminist movement
Understanding the sociology of Race & Ethnicity
Urban planning in the US
Virtual reality, what it is and how it works
Various theoretical perspectives of sociology
What is a Definition Essay?
What are diagnostic essays?
What is the relation between art structural engineering?
What is a Narrative Essay
What are robotics and intelligence systems?
What are the benefits of studying health sciences?
What is artificial intelligence and why it matters?
What is comparative Literature?
Why study neuroscience
What is Wi-Fi and how does it works
What is French history famous for?
What are Humanistic Studies?
What is covered in Biophysics?
What is modern journalism?
What is Virtualization? Benefits & Applications
What are modern public relations?
What is plasma physics?
What is teacher preparation?
What is rapid prototyping for 3D printing?
What is contemporary European Politics?
Why should you learn American Ballet?
What is engineering physics?
What is the purpose of African American Literature?
Ways to learn the Rhythm
What is digital art used for?
What are Enzymes and how do they work
Who is the father of political science?
Why Study Political Science - Job?
What is the Philosophy of Feminism?
What is a quantum computer?
Ways B2B Startups Streamline Their Conversion Strategies
Why do biomedical signals need processing?
What are the long term effects of climate change?
Why study labour relations
4 Facts about Origin of Mathematics!
5 techniques to create an animation
13 Best colleges for political science in the world